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From the globalisation of the movement (1968) to the movement against globalisation (2001)
Author: Antigoni Memou

Throughout its brief history, photography has had a close relationship to social movements. From the Commune of Paris in 1871, the first political uprising to be captured by camera, to the 1990s anti-globalisation movement, the photographic medium has played a crucial role in political struggles. The book reflects critically on the theory of photography and the social movements themselves. It draws on a range of humanities disciplines, including photography theory and history, social movement theory, political theory, cultural history, visual culture, media studies and the history and theory of art. The book takes as a starting point 1968 - a year that witnessed an explosion of social movements worldwide and has been interpreted as a turning point for political practice and theory. The finishing point is 2001 - a signpost for international politics due to September 11 and a significant year for the movement because of the large-scale anti-capitalist protests in Genoa. Within these chronological limits, the book focuses on a selection of distinctive instances in which the photographic medium intersects with the political struggle. The three case studies are not the only pertinent examples, by any means, but they are important ones, not only historically and politically, but also iconographically. They are the student and worker uprising in France in May 1968 and two moments of the contemporary anti-capitalist movement, the indigenous Zapatista movement in Mexico and the anti-capitalist protests in Genoa in 2001.

Anarchism as a unique example
Dana M. Williams

1 Introduction to social movements: anarchism as a unique example The purpose of my life all has been focused on: helping everyone to have a spring, so that everyone’s heart will be bright, everyone will have a happy life, and everyone will have the freedom to develop in any way they want. (李尧棠 [Ba Jin])1 Today’s anarchist movements are not brand new, neither are they simple replicas or resurrections of old anarchist movements. They are reasonable – if not always predictable – descendants of previous anarchist movement iterations. While new in many of their foci

in Black flags and social movements
A sociological analysis of movement anarchism

The black flag means negation, anger, outrage, mourning, beauty, hope, and the fostering and sheltering of new forms of human life and relationship on and with the earth. This book aims to destroy many of the assumptions and stereotypes about anarchism, anarchists, and anarchist movements. It introduces Mario Diani's definition of a social movement: networks of individuals and organizations, united by some shared identity, that engage in extra-institutional action with the interest of changing society. Social movements must be composed of individuals. The book provides new insights into individual participants in anarchist movements by investigating what the micro-level characteristics of contemporary anarchists are, and how these characteristics differ from those of anarchists in past movements. The anarchist movement can be interrogated from many vantage points (especially macro- and meso-analyses), in both longitudinal and cross-sectional contexts. The book explores the usefulness (or lack thereof) of social movement theories for understanding anarchist movements. It challenges the assumption that the state is a strategic location of opportunity from the perspective of radical, anti-state movements. The essential dimensions of "new social movement" (NSM) theories are discussed, with highlights on the differences between the contemporary anarchist movement and other NSMs. The book also explores ideas from major social capital theorists, and considers the value of social capital. Whereas most sociological research on anti-authoritarian diffusion and isomorphism has focused on mainstream organizations or reformist social movements, anarchist movements pose a particular challenge to the earlier findings focused on the non-anarchists.

Jenny Pickerill

1 Politics, social movements and technology According to Resnick (1998), the politics of cyberspace can be conceptualised in three distinct ways: politics within cyberspace – involving the internal operation of cyberspace and those who are online; politics which impacts upon cyberspace – the policies and legislation which affect cyberspace; and political uses of cyberspace – how the technology is used to affect political life offline. All three aspects need to be taken into consideration for they are all intertwined and all of them impact upon environmentalists

in Cyberprotest
Theoretical appendix
Phil Edwards

8 Social movements and cycles of contention: theoretical appendix This book is a study of a cycle of contention, in which a gatekeeper to the political sphere interacted through framing transactions with a series of disorderly social movements. The purpose of this appendix is to define some of the key terms and concepts I’ve used, with a view to minimising unnecessary scholarly dispute. Social movements and framing processes Social movements can be defined as groups within society which combine three factors: an oppositional or reformist stance towards the

in ‘More work! Less pay!’
George Ross

3 Social democracy and social movements from crisis to crisis George Ross Social democracy and social protest movements have been closely related since the rise of industrial society. The social democratic story began with a congeries of anti-capitalist protest movements confronting powerful enemies that eventually coalesced into the dominant reformist force in democratic industrial societies. In time, however, social democracy ‘normalised’ into a conventional political force working within the frontiers of a capitalism it doctrinally claimed to oppose

in European social democracy during the global economic crisis
Abstract only
Antigoni Memou

Introduction T h r o u g h o u t its brief history, photography has had a close relationship to social movements. From the Commune of Paris in 1871, the first political uprising to be captured by camera, to the 1990s anti-globalisation movement, the photographic medium has played a crucial role in political struggles.1 The camera’s presence at very important moments of political resistance resulted in some of the best-known photographs in the history of twentieth-century photography. Some of these photographs transcended the historical and geographical

in Photography and social movements
May 1968 in the mainstream French press
Antigoni Memou

wanted space to express their demands.4 The symbolic value of the barricades – a revival of a technique used in earlier moments of popular uprisings in French history, namely in 1830, 1848 and in the Paris Commune – and the 15 Photography and social movements contrasting brutal violence performed by the police generated support of students and the mobilisation of other social groups − mobilisation as a response to the government’s repression. The poor reporting was an inevitable result of a ‘governmental model’ of broadcast organisation, in which public broadcasting

in Photography and social movements
Abstract only
Antigoni Memou

circulation of these images from the mainstream mass media to the activists’ communication channels, and, finally, to photobooks and exhibition displays. Echoing Benjamin’s belief in the democratic potential of the medium and its instrumental role in a radical critique of bourgeois society, due to its inherent reproducibility and accessibility to a wider public, the book examined the photographic production, not only by professional 163 Photography and social movements photographers but also by amateurs, activists themselves in control of their own representation and in

in Photography and social movements
Antigoni Memou

organisational and networking opportunities. It directly challenged the mainstream media’s generally limited coverage of the Zapatistas, which tended to either present their writings in a fragmented way or not to include any serious analysis of their political ideology. More importantly, the internet helped the Zapatistas to draw international attention to the government’s corruption and lack of concern about the miserable conditions in the state of Chiapas. The solidarity took the form of 87 Photography and social movements written statements and of physical actions

in Photography and social movements