(creating mamzerim ) was an
essential and central element in his thinking. Other dayanim were
wary of compelling a husband to grant a gett mainly because of
the clear and straightforward injunction in the Torah; nonetheless, they
did not refrain from suggesting indirect methods of putting pressure on
recalcitrant husbands. One way, for example, was to damage his socialstanding and to give him notice
The Jewish society that lived amongst the Christian population in medieval Europe presents a puzzle and a challenge to any historian. This book presents a study on the relationship between men and women within the Jewish society that lived among the Christian population for a period of some 350 years. The study concentrates on Germany, northern France and England from the middle of the tenth century until the middle of the second half of the fourteenth century - by which time the Christian population has had enough of the Jewish communities living among them and expels them from almost all the places they were living in. The picture portrayed by Mishnaic and talmudic literature was that basically women lived under the authority of someone else (their fathers or husbands), therefore, their status was different from that of men. Four paradigms were the outcome of research blending questions raised within the spheres of gender research and feminist theory with the research methodology of social history. These were Rashi and the 'family paradigm'; the negative male paradigm; the Hasidic paradigm; and the community paradigm. The highest level of Jewish religious expression is the performance of the mitzvot - the divine Commandments. Women were not required to perform all the Commandments, yet their desire to perform and fully experience the mitzvot extended to almost all areas of halakhah. The book also describes how the sages attempted to dictate to women the manner of their observance of mitzvot set aside for women alone.
Finnish and Swedish coasts assessing timber.
Whenever work allowed, Dresser would squeeze in some time for
ornithology and collecting. A small pocket diary that he kept during 1856–58 –
beautifully written in his characteristic low, looping writing – gives details of
his day-to-day collecting activities, his meetings with local naturalists and brief
notes on the birds he saw.10 He had a high socialstanding so, although only a
young man (of nineteen), he was able to befriend the most notable ornithologists and he was certainly confident enough to approach
the Jewish woman’s readiness to lead religious resistance to the
death, together with her unswerving devotion to Jewish values.
The change in the status of the woman manifested itself in
at least three significant ways; in her economic-legal status, in her
status within the family and in her socialstanding. It was in this
period that, due to the external pressures and due to the social outlook
longer be counted on; it formed part of the trend to encourage the poor to be self-sufﬁcient and resourceful.
Childcare, health and mortality
The Foundling Hospital also attracted increasing criticism over time
for supposedly raising the foundling children above their proper socialstanding. This was a charge levelled against charity schools as well, as
both types of institution had ties to educational and training opportunities which were beyond the reach of poor parents or parish ofﬁcials.11
Labouring, service at sea and domestic service were the professions
was to be carried out by mutual agreement; most likely, this also led to
an agreement regarding the division of the family assets. And one
confirmation of this is the dearth of responsa dealing with
property disputes between spouses during the divorce procedures.
The improvement in their economic status had profound
effects on women’s socialstanding. From the legal point of view,
societies, publications and publishers, and a readership.
Dresser and his close colleagues in the BOU were the great ‘swells’ of
ornithology (a term used by Louis Mandelli – see Pinn, 1985: 12): wealthy
men with a high socialstanding. They collaborated by supporting each other
with their individual projects; at the same time, they worked independently on
‘their’ projects, as scientific writing was largely a single-handed affair. When
Dresser was producing A History of the Birds of Europe, his closest associates were
working on their own book projects. Alfred
Raymond hails the omnibus and omnibus stations as exemplary social spaces of class equality, and as models of fairness. She notes that while getting a seat on an omnibus is a daunting task because these conveyances are typically overcrowded, when it came to allocating seats, strict order reigned in omnibus stations, an order that had nothing to do with the passengers’ socialstanding and everything to do with their place in line:
Mais une égalité inexorable préside à la distribution des places disponibles, et, quelle que soit la position sociale du numéro 10, il
This book provides an abundance of fresh insights into Shakespeare's life in relation to his lost family home, New Place. It first covers the first 6,000 years of the site, from its prehistoric beginnings through its development into a plot within the economic context of early medieval Stratford-upon-Avon, and the construction of the first timber-framed building. The book then describes the construction and distinctive features of Hugh Clopton's brick-and-timber house, the first New Place. Stratford-upon-Avon gave Shakespeare a deeply rooted love of family, loyal neighbours and friends, and although he came to enjoy a prominent social standing there, he probably had little or no time at all for its puritanical side. The book provides a cultural, religious and economic context for Shakespeare's upbringing; education, work, marriage, and early investments up to his son, Hamnet's death, and his father, John Shakespeare, being made a gentleman. It discusses the importance of New Place to Shakespeare and his family during the nineteen years he owned it and spent time there. The book also takes us to just beyond the death of Shakespeare's granddaughter, Elizabeth, Lady Bernard, the last direct descendant of Shakespeare to live in the house. It further gives an account of James Halliwell's acquisition of the site, his archaeology and how New Place has become an important focus for the local community, not least during the 'Dig for Shakespeare'.
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies and Miriam Czock
Access to resources and conflicts over resources provide many of the contexts
for collective action by local groups. This chapter investigates the
evidence for collaboration in basic agricultural tasks and other economic
activities, as well as that for more political forms of cooperation, for
instance in jointly building churches, running local courts, attesting land
transactions; and it looks at the evidence for the role of conflict in
defining discrete groups. Our focus examines how collective action brought
together people of widely varying wealth, social standing and even different
legal status. The chapter also considers the labels people used of
themselves and those that others used of them, as well as attitudes to
outsiders, such as non-residents, people culturally marked as foreign, and
those excluded from the social group for lack of conformity or otherwise, as
well as the conscious identification of some within the group, such as Jews,