New Labour approach – an overview While Ferlie et al. in their overview of New Public Management describe “quasi markets” and “Next Steps agencies” in the 1980s and early 1990s ( Ferlie et al. 1996 , chapter 1), New Labour policies for social enterprise and third sector delivery of public services had not yet arrived. However, as shown above, and later in this chapter, some
Social enterprise and third sector activity have mushroomed into a prolific area of academic research and discourse over the past 20 years, with many claiming their origins rooted in Blair, New Labour and Giddens’ ‘Third Way’. But many academic contributions lack experience of policy implementation and do not access the wealth of grey, legacy and public policy literature from earlier periods which supports different interpretations. Since most make few references to developments during the 1970s and 1980s, their narrow focus on New Labour from 1997 onwards not only neglects real antecedents, but miscasts the role of social enterprise.
Adopting a Critical Realist approach, the author had access to previously unused hardcopy documents from archives and collections and interviewed key players and key actors between 1998 and 2002, when major social enterprise and third sector policy changes occurred.
During a key political period from 1998 to 2002, Blair’s New Labour governments forced through a major conceptual shift for social enterprise, co-operative and third sector activity. Many structures, formed as community responses to massive deindustrialisation in the 1970s and 1980s, were repositioned to bid against the private sector to obtain contracts for delivery of low-cost public services.
Other UK academic contributions draw parallels with North American individual social entrepreneurs or rely excessively on interpretations from L’Emergence de l’Entreprise Sociale en Europe (EMES) Research Network, which prioritises a marketised version of “work integration social enterprises” (WISEs).
So the restoration of political and economic democracy has been denied to many local communities.
the main destination for Venezuelans arriving in Brazil by land route. 1 The digital work initiative was carried out within the programme of a global social enterprise 2 of impact-sourcing that focused on providing temporary jobs through a freelance platform. The coordinator of the digital work programme highlighted the importance of the initiative in the context of Venezuelan migration in Boa Vista, given the difficulties of local economies in absorbing both refugees and local workers
. The results were analysed with Python and in Excel using simple numerical analysis and cross tabulation. A collaboration with the International Labour Organization (ILO) during this first phase of the project laid the foundations for subsequent ILO-commissioned research on refugees in the digital platform economy in Kenya, Uganda and Egypt, in collaboration with researchers at the social enterprise, Samuel Hall. The total number of interviews conducted in this second phase
. 4 One solution is that humanitarian organisations could enter the market by spinning off social enterprises by which they generate returns through equity or licensing agreements, similar to the approach now taken by universities ( Pattnaik and Pandey, 2014 ), although there are ethical and practical obstacles to this. Bibliography
with a ‘trauma-informed approach’ ( RefuSHE, 2020b ), which views social enterprise as a ‘step in the journey toward independence and a new life after war and conflict’. Emancipatory and healing qualities thus are assigned to artisan work whereby refugee women ‘learn, grow and become leaders in their own right’ ( Rigou, 2018 ). This is coupled with an emphasis on the significance of education and offering a ‘safe shelter and a peaceful
country into a new testing ground for blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies as an alternative form of transaction and trade. 13 One successful example that reflects the nature of such changing markets is the Jordan-based BitMal, a social enterprise enabled by a Blockchain infrastructure that offers online work related to social causes and pays in virtual currency that is exchanged in-kind. A group of six participants from the DST Beqaa centre
opportunities around the world. Digital labour platforms and the online gig economy now promise access to work for anyone with an internet connection, a computer and the right skillset. Inspired by this promise, governments, civil society, social enterprises and international organisations in the humanitarian and development sectors, including the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), the World Food Programme (WFP), the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the Norwegian Refugee Council
Organisations labelled “social enterprises” are now redefined, reinvented and written up widely as though they were for low-cost delivery of public services. Social enterprise today is also frequently presented as an alternative to, as an amendment or even resistance to neoliberalism and capitalism. But in this book the author shows that, far from forming an alternative to neoliberalism, social
This book has sought to show that though third sector and social enterprise historical antecedents are causal, they have been lost. Labour and Co-operative Movement political support has been replaced by a depoliticised sector which functions increasingly as a player in a competitive market for the delivery of public services. This has limited the development potential for