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Jonathan Wolff

MCK8 1/10/2003 10:29 AM Page 147 8 Social ethos and the dynamics of toleration Jonathan Wolff ‘The difficulty with toleration’, writes Bernard Williams, ‘is that it seems to be at once necessary and impossible.’1 Toleration is necessary if groups with fundamentally different and conflicting values and beliefs are to live in peace together, but, so it is said, prima facie impossible under such circumstances. Why so? The idea of toleration only seems appropriate when a conflict of values or beliefs goes so deep that groups may think that ‘they cannot accept

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Reasonable tolerance

The idea of toleration as the appropriate response to difference has been central to liberal thought since Locke. Although the subject has been widely and variously explored, there has been reluctance to acknowledge the new meaning that current debates offer on toleration. This book starts from a clear recognition of the new terms of the debate, reflecting the capacity of seeing the other's viewpoint, and the limited extent to which toleration can be granted. Theoretical statements on toleration posit at the same time its necessity in democratic societies, and its impossibility as a coherent ideal. There are several possible objections to, and ways of developing the ideal of, reasonable tolerance as advocated by John Rawls and by some other supporters of political liberalism. The first part of the book explores some of them. In some real-life conflicts, it is unclear on whom the burden of reasonableness may fall. This part discusses the reasonableness of pluralism, and general concept and various more specific conceptions of toleration. The forces of progressive politics have been divided into two camps: redistribution and recognition. The second part of the book is an attempt to explore the internal coherence of such a transformation when applied to different contexts. It argues that openness to others in discourse, and their treatment as free and equal, is part of a kind of reflexive toleration that pertains to public communication in the deliberative context. Social ethos, religious discrimination and education are discussed in connection with tolerance.

Open Access (free)
Popular magic in modern Europe

The study of witchcraft accusations in Europe during the period after the end of the witch trials is still in its infancy. Witches were scratched in England, swum in Germany, beaten in the Netherlands and shot in France. The continued widespread belief in witchcraft and magic in nineteenth- and twentieth-century France has received considerable academic attention. The book discusses the extent and nature of witchcraft accusations in the period and provides a general survey of the published work on the subject for an English audience. It explores the presence of magical elements in everyday life during the modern period in Spain. The book provides a general overview of vernacular magical beliefs and practices in Italy from the time of unification to the present, with particular attention to how these traditions have been studied. By functioning as mechanisms of social ethos and control, narratives of magical harm were assured a place at the very heart of rural Finnish social dynamics into the twentieth century. The book draws upon over 300 narratives recorded in rural Finland in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that provide information concerning the social relations, tensions and strategies that framed sorcery and the counter-magic employed against it. It is concerned with a special form of witchcraft that is practised only amongst Hungarians living in Transylvania.

Keith Dowding

personal relations. However, it could also be given an expansive interpretation to cover those other elements that 140 Luck Cohen (1997, 2000) believes need to be covered by egalitarian concerns, namely: the conventions that non-coercively govern our actions; the social ethos that shapes our attitudes to what is right and wrong; and the personal choices that people make. How might one measure luck? We could view the amount of luck one has as a relationship between the expected outcome and the actual outcome. A measure of luck could be thought as something like AV − EV

in Power, luck and freedom
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Ben Jackson

reconcile egalitarian aspirations with concerns about economic efficiency.88 In a similar vein, progressives also stressed that the systematic reform of capitalist reward structures in line with principles of justice would in itself create a new social ethos that would facilitate a greater willingness on the part of individuals to contribute productively to the necessary work of the community. This claim acquired its greatest political salience in the immediate aftermath of the War, since at that time it was widely agreed that the major problem facing the British economy

in Equality and the British Left
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A colonial world
John Darwin

during daylight and on sufferance from distant ‘townships’. The absence of agricultural colonists among Europeans and (very largely) Japanese may have influenced their social ethos in other respects. In the Americas, Australasia and Southern Africa, rural settler politics tended to be aggressively egalitarian – though equality was racially bounded – and the myth of the ‘open frontier’, followed by resentment at its closure, exerted a radicalising effect on settler communities. In East Asia the pattern was different. Among

in New frontiers
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Ben Jackson

community, as a result reducing the economic inequality necessary to promote productive efficiency. This understanding of the relationship between the values of equality and community, and the accompanying commitment to the promotion of an egalitarian social ethos, remained important to some egalitarians throughout 222 Equality and the British Left the entire period examined in this book. In particular, it was granted a fresh lease of life by the social experiences of the Second World War and the post-war interest in the ‘organic’ character of working-class culture

in Equality and the British Left
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Nationalism in internationalism
Michael Holmes
and
Kathryn Simpson

EU was over-regulated and offered too many social protections to conservative fears that the EU would undermine Ireland’s Catholic social ethos ( Holmes 2005b : 82–84). This means that opposition to the EU is always something of a temporary phenomenon that coalesces around the time of referendums and is not a coherent and consistent force. Nonetheless, the same could be said of pro-EU groups. Most

in Ireland and the European Union
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Towards the revolutions, 1750–98
Andrew Hadfield

Mackenzie's The Man of Feeling ’, SSL 23 (1988), 136–49. 28 R. Peter Burnham, ‘The Social Ethos of Mackenzie's The Man of Feeling ’, SSL 18 (1983), 123–37, p. 128; Poems of Gray, Collins, and Goldsmith , p. 670. 29 Earl Miner, ‘The Making of The Deserted Village ’, HLQ 22 (1959), 125–41. See

in Literature and class
Reveries of reverse colonization
Stuart Ward

promoting Australia as one of the last bastions of the white man; a place to which his constituents increasingly looked to escape the scourge of immigration at home. 29 Curiously, no counterpart to Powell, Smith, or Wallace ever emerged in Australia during these years of profound transition; no political embodiment of white resentment who might resist the prevailing liberal trends. The most likely candidates would have been drawn from the Country Party, with its heavily rural constituency and deeply conservative social ethos. And indeed, there was abundant sympathy and

in Global white nationalism