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Author: Jennifer Ward

This book provides a broad-ranging and accessible coverage of the role of noble women in medieval England. Throughout the Middle Ages the men and women of the nobility and gentry occupied a position at the top of the social hierarchy. Marriage for noble and gentry children was arranged by their families, with the participation on occasion of their lords and of the king, and it was relatively rare for the children themselves to take matters into their own hands. As with marriage, the woman's relationship to her husband and children has to be seen within the framework of canon and common law, the Church being concerned with the marriage itself, and the royal courts with property. The crucial importance of land as the source of wealth for noble and gentry society has been underlined in the discussion of both marriage and the family. Women's landholding is well documented, the amount of land in their hands varying according to the accidents of birth and fortune. The household was the centre and hub of the lady's life and activities, and can be regarded as a community in its own right. Men and women of the nobility and gentry living in the world were encouraged to practise their religion through attendance at Mass, private prayer on behalf of themselves and the dead, works of charity, pilgrimage, and material support of the Church. Although many women's lives followed a conventional pattern, great variety existed within family relationships, and individuality can also be seen in religious practices and patronage. Piety could take a number of different forms, whether a woman became a nun, a vowess or a noted philanthropist and benefactor to religious institutions.

William Brewer

Brewer argues that the feudal society presented in Matthew Lewis‘s The Monk (1796) is destabilised by reversals in gender roles. The disruptive power of Matilda, the protagonists chief tempter, derives from her unsettling ability to take on both masculine and feminine identities in her relationship with Ambrosio and even to become androgynous. Although Matilda‘s transgendering does not seriously undermine the prevailing social hierarchies, it does expose the arbitrary and contingent nature of gender identity. And while Matilda‘s repudiation of established value systems and her affirmation of the joys of sensual gratification are unlikely to become public policy in a partriarchal society, her critiques, both implicit and explicit, of the restrictions of prescribed gender roles and the mental limitations caused by faulty and incomplete educations cannot be easily dismissed.

Gothic Studies
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

deeply entrenched views of social hierarchy. Given that a high proportion of people affected by the earthquake were from vulnerable and marginalised groups (Dalits, Indigenous peoples, female-headed households and senior citizens), the capacity of the international humanitarian response system to reach these groups was significantly affected ( Ferretti et al. , 2016 ; STC, 2015 ). The Structural Challenge The fourth aspect limiting the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Witchcraft and the symbolics of hierarchy in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland
Raisa Maria Toivo

1 Beyond the witch trials Marking (dis)order Marking (dis)order: witchcraft and the symbolics of hierarchy in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland Raisa Maria Toivo What do witchcraft and witch trials tell us about power and social hierarchy? Witch trials have often enough been explained in terms of social relations and schisms, particularly in local contexts. In a highly competitive world, disagreements resulted from and caused both attacks by suspected witches and accusations made against them. It has often been noted that in Sweden and

in Beyond the witch trials
Abstract only
Daniel Szechi

peculiarities of eighteenth-century society. Before taking a closer look at Jacobite society in the British Isles then, we must first briefly review how society as a whole functioned. Hierarchy and power in the British Isles, 1688–1788 Eighteenth-century English and Welsh society conceived of itself as a hierarchy of orders. 3 Men and women were born into a certain station in life – yeoman; gentleman; artisan, and so on – and most moved up or down the social hierarchy within that compartment for the rest of their days. Some, of course, completely lost their

in The Jacobites (second edition)
Open Access (free)
Duncan Sayer

may have been easily dispensed with in quiet times and more common in graves when they were less critical to the living community (Härke, 1994). Table 4.1 Interpretations of social hierarchy based on the quality of gravegoods found in inhumation graves (based on Arnold 1981, Christlein 1973 and Shephard 1979) Social rank (Arnold) Quality group (Christlein) Social hierarchy (Shephard) Male grave goods Female grave goods General significance unfree A E No gravegoods No gravegoods Poor graves D Knife buckle

in Early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries
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A. Martin Wainwright

Conservatives of the present day.’ 9 Late in life Godley joined the Conservative party. Complementing the common context of social hierarchy in which they lived were the shared educational experiences which set India Office administrators apart from the lower classes. All civil servants had attended university and passed exams to qualify them for their

in ‘The better class’ of Indians
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A hierarchical empire
A. Martin Wainwright

State’s perspective reflected the discourses of social hierarchy that British institutions applied to Indians in the United Kingdom. He began with an implicit contrast between the experience of officials in Britain and those in the dominions. Whereas the latter tended to encounter Indians only from the lowest social ranks, the former did so from a wide variety of backgrounds. He

in ‘The better class’ of Indians
Jasmine Allen

how stained glass was used to articulate national identity, mark territory, and affirm the political presence of ruling oligarchies. The second part considers the use of stained glass as imperial propaganda within international exhibitions, focusing on the two largest and most dominant empires of the era, Britain and France.4 The final section speculatively explores the role of stained glass in the formation of racial and ethnic stereotypes to both emphasise human variety and reinforce social hierarchies. Since stained glass was an art form principally associated

in Windows for the world
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Delarivier Manley’s Secret Memoirs and Manners and the modern chronicle
Noelle Gallagher

required not just a degree of temporal distance, but also a sense of social hierarchy – an ability to identify, isolate, and dramatize those great men whose thoughts and actions were understood to govern the processes of historical change. In this feature too, neoclassical formal history could be distinguished from the primitive medieval chronicle. While chronicles did ‘abound in

in Historical literatures