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This book provides a critical exposition of the international law concerning child soldiers. It starts by looking at the situation of child soldiers in the world today, examining why children are recruited into armed forces and groups; why they volunteer for military service; and, once recruited, what treatment they receive. The book explores how perceptions of childhood and children's rights have changed, and how this has affected the ways in which child soldiers have been treated. It describes the activities of the United Nations with regard to the child soldier phenomenon. The book examines the legal regulation of the recruitment and use of children in hostilities. It shows that although international law comprehensively regulates the recruitment and use of child soldiers, owing to the plethora of treaties on the subject, states' obligations continue to differ and children can still lawfully be recruited and used to participate in armed conflict. The book discusses how, once recruited into armed forces and groups, international law treats child soldiers. It considers the status of child soldiers as combatants and as persons in the power of an adverse party in both international and internal armed conflicts, and states' obligations with regard the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of child soldiers. An unusual feature of how child soldiers are viewed is that they are often seen as both victims of human rights abuses and as human rights violators. Finally, the book examines the extent to which the recruitment and use of child soldiers is an international crime.

Matthew Happold

adults in ‘Camp Iguana’; that their guards are selected for their experience in working with young people; and that they receive some schooling, including English lessons, and regular group-therapy sessions. 27 Human Rights Watch has alleged that the US authorities are in breach of their obligations under Article 7 of the OP to cooperate in the rehabilitation and social reintegration of persons

in Child soldiers in international law
Vanya Kovačič

majority of titles on this topic take a state perspective ( Carter and Kidder, 2015 ; Auerbach et al., 2013 ; Pupavac and Pupavac, 2012) or a purely medical/surgical perspective ( Taylor et al., 2012 ; Foote et al., 2015 ; Der-Martirosian et al., 2013 ). War veterans are also a focus of the literature that studies post-war social reintegration, stigmatization, and mental-health topics ( MacLean

in Reconstructing lives
Matthew Happold

and on the demobilisation and social reintegration of child soldiers in Africa organised by the NGO working group on the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the United Nations Fund for Children (UNICEF) in 1997, child soldiers are defined as: ‘Any person under 18 years of age who is part of any kind of regular or irregular armed force or group in any capacity, including but not limited to cooks

in Child soldiers in international law
Marja Warehime

tenderness and open affection for one another represent an implicit reproach to the adults of the film. In Les 400 Coups the bourgeois world is corrupt, and the family, no less than the school and the justice system, fail Antoine. He escapes from the imprisoning world of adults, but remains alone in the final freeze frame. Pialat’s film ends with the hope (however fragile) of the child’s social reintegration into the family, which remains, for better or for worse, a crucial link between the individual and society. If both films represent a backward look at childhood

in Maurice Pialat
Loïc Wacquant

’ that ‘deprivation of liberty should be used sparingly’, and the general discrediting of the ideal of ‘the rehabilitation and social reintegration of the offender’.24 Whether through importation or inspiration, the alignment of penal policies never entails the deployment of identical replicas. In European countries with a strong statist tradition, Catholic or social-democratic, the new politics of poverty does not imply a mechanical duplication of the US pattern, with a clear and brutal swing from the social to the penal treatment of urban marginality leading to

in Incarceration and human rights
Abstract only
Changing noses, changing fortunes
Emily Cock

scandalous’ individuals for whom a passing rhinoplasty would enable social reintegration. Indeed, Amelia is bursting with threads and asides about the injustices of the law and social prejudice. Fielding draws explicitly on the stigmatising associations of the damaged nose for the impact of Amelia's accident on her characterisation and the plot. As many commentators have highlighted, Amelia stands in an uneasy mirroring relationship with another, rather more familiarly noseless character. The grotesque features of ‘blear-eyed Moll’ uncannily

in Rhinoplasty and the nose in early modern British medicine and culture
Sergio Cortesini

implied, would come out of a communal practice, just as the Italian masters were born of an art experience integrated within the body politic. These arguments against the speculative market and for the social reintegration of artists were nurtured by the fantasy of a return to the historic guild system. ‘The trouble [with the disappointing quality of some works]’ – Maurice Sterne

in Republics and empires
Roel Meijer

-wala’ wa-l-bara’ (the principle of loyalty to one's community, i.e. Muslims/Salafis, and disavowal of non-Muslims/non-Salafis), jihad , the spilling of innocent blood, the ruler and the community ( al-imama wa-l-jama‘a ), and allegiance ( bay‘a ) and obedience ( ta‘a ) to the (wrong) leaders instead of to the correct ruler ( wali al-amr ). The whole course covered twenty sessions and lasted seven weeks. 56 Total ideological de-programming, called revision ( muraja‘a ) of radical ideas, is regarded as a necessary precondition for taking part in the subsequent social

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Extremism and the ‘politics of mutual envy’ in Nigeria?
Akinyemi Oyawale

approach is similar to prisoner rehabilitation assessments where success is measured based on lack of, or low percentage of, recidivism among beneficiaries. In a similar evaluative work, Clubb and Tapley (2018) introduce a more community-based evaluative approach which does not merely stop at lack of recidivism but, rather, the successful social reintegration of ‘disengaged’ and ‘deradicalised’ individuals back into their communities. These studies all provide a solid attempt to evaluate the success of a state policy to fulfil its objectives, which is evident in their

in Encountering extremism