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This book provides a critical exposition of the international law concerning child soldiers. It starts by looking at the situation of child soldiers in the world today, examining why children are recruited into armed forces and groups; why they volunteer for military service; and, once recruited, what treatment they receive. The book explores how perceptions of childhood and children's rights have changed, and how this has affected the ways in which child soldiers have been treated. It describes the activities of the United Nations with regard to the child soldier phenomenon. The book examines the legal regulation of the recruitment and use of children in hostilities. It shows that although international law comprehensively regulates the recruitment and use of child soldiers, owing to the plethora of treaties on the subject, states' obligations continue to differ and children can still lawfully be recruited and used to participate in armed conflict. The book discusses how, once recruited into armed forces and groups, international law treats child soldiers. It considers the status of child soldiers as combatants and as persons in the power of an adverse party in both international and internal armed conflicts, and states' obligations with regard the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of child soldiers. An unusual feature of how child soldiers are viewed is that they are often seen as both victims of human rights abuses and as human rights violators. Finally, the book examines the extent to which the recruitment and use of child soldiers is an international crime.

Matthew Happold

adults in ‘Camp Iguana’; that their guards are selected for their experience in working with young people; and that they receive some schooling, including English lessons, and regular group-therapy sessions. 27 Human Rights Watch has alleged that the US authorities are in breach of their obligations under Article 7 of the OP to cooperate in the rehabilitation and social reintegration of persons

in Child soldiers in international law
Abstract only
Gender, genre, exile

This book examines critical assessments of the woman and her work (again, that almost unavoidable conflation) from the seventeenth century to the twenty-first. The author conveys some of the creative energy of Cavendish and her work in the middle years of the seventeenth century. More importantly, though, the author wants to show how her work was politically charged, not in any immediately evident way, but in a highly complex and imaginative way. The book illustrates and expands upon the book's central hypothesis: that Cavendish used genre in her writings of the 1650s as a means of articulating her powerlessness in the face of what the author comes to define as a 'triple exile'. In this book the author has, further, identified affinities in intention and circumstances surrounding the writing of texts earlier than those of Cavendish. Her take on earlier authors' rhetorical stances facilitates her own, acutely contemporary, comment and creativity. Cavendish's treatment of genre undergoes a transformation during and because of the civil wars which, to royalist minds, spelled the end of an epic past. The book differs in its emphasis from earlier examinations of Cavendish's writings. The author returns to the 'rehabilitative' nature of recent work on Cavendish and her writings, demonstrating how her own study has participated in this process of rehabilitation. Literary canonicity was, analogously, another 'place' from which Cavendish was for centuries exiled. This book represents a redemption of the writer from, at the very least, that particular iniquitous cultural corollary to the triple exile.

Vanya Kovačič

majority of titles on this topic take a state perspective ( Carter and Kidder, 2015 ; Auerbach et al., 2013 ; Pupavac and Pupavac, 2012) or a purely medical/surgical perspective ( Taylor et al., 2012 ; Foote et al., 2015 ; Der-Martirosian et al., 2013 ). War veterans are also a focus of the literature that studies post-war social reintegration, stigmatization, and mental-health topics ( MacLean

in Reconstructing lives
Matthew Happold

and on the demobilisation and social reintegration of child soldiers in Africa organised by the NGO working group on the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the United Nations Fund for Children (UNICEF) in 1997, child soldiers are defined as: ‘Any person under 18 years of age who is part of any kind of regular or irregular armed force or group in any capacity, including but not limited to cooks

in Child soldiers in international law
Marja Warehime

tenderness and open affection for one another represent an implicit reproach to the adults of the film. In Les 400 Coups the bourgeois world is corrupt, and the family, no less than the school and the justice system, fail Antoine. He escapes from the imprisoning world of adults, but remains alone in the final freeze frame. Pialat’s film ends with the hope (however fragile) of the child’s social reintegration into the family, which remains, for better or for worse, a crucial link between the individual and society. If both films represent a backward look at childhood

in Maurice Pialat
Homeric motifs in Assaulted and Pursued Chastity
Emma L. E. Rees

social reintegration. 58 Both Ulysses and Miseria take with them on their travels something which must at all costs be protected, being rightful rule in Ulysses' case, chastity in Miseria's. The rhythm of the epic, which from the outset is established by the topos of the ship in the storm, is one of a movement from danger, to escape, to danger, to stasis, and back again. 59 The protagonists' encounters along the way are what define them or what, for Miseria, radically redefine her in terms of gender and identity. The bawd prepares Miseria for the sexual attentions of

in Margaret Cavendish
Loïc Wacquant

’ that ‘deprivation of liberty should be used sparingly’, and the general discrediting of the ideal of ‘the rehabilitation and social reintegration of the offender’.24 Whether through importation or inspiration, the alignment of penal policies never entails the deployment of identical replicas. In European countries with a strong statist tradition, Catholic or social-democratic, the new politics of poverty does not imply a mechanical duplication of the US pattern, with a clear and brutal swing from the social to the penal treatment of urban marginality leading to

in Incarceration and human rights
Ben Harris

superintendents motivated their patients with rations of tobacco and beer, a practice not permitted in America.22 As Dwyer notes, the superintendent revived the rhetoric of moral treatment to justify the heavy reliance on work programmes. But, unlike Thomas Kirkbride, the medical staff was unlikely ever to meet most patients, relying on poorly trained attendants for information and interventions. Illustrating the asylum’s lack of interest in work as rehabilitation or social reintegration, one patient lost his permission to leave the hospital grounds when it was discovered that

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Abstract only
Changing noses, changing fortunes
Emily Cock

scandalous’ individuals for whom a passing rhinoplasty would enable social reintegration. Indeed, Amelia is bursting with threads and asides about the injustices of the law and social prejudice. Fielding draws explicitly on the stigmatising associations of the damaged nose for the impact of Amelia's accident on her characterisation and the plot. As many commentators have highlighted, Amelia stands in an uneasy mirroring relationship with another, rather more familiarly noseless character. The grotesque features of ‘blear-eyed Moll’ uncannily

in Rhinoplasty and the nose in early modern British medicine and culture