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Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

5 Social security ➤ The principles of social security in the Welfare State ➤ Review of how social security developed up to 1979 ➤ Description and analysis of the reforms and new attitude to social security under the Conservatives after 1979 ➤ Analysis of New Labour’s attitude to social security after 1997 BEVERIDGE: FROM THE CRADLE TO THE GRAVE The Beveridge Report of 1942 which heralded in National Insurance the post-war Welfare State proposed a compreA form of taxation levied on hensive National Insurance system which would those in work and employers. Based

in Understanding British and European political issues
The relative efficacy of poor relief provisions under the English Old Poor Law
Richard Smith

Bayly 03_Tonra 01 21/06/2011 10:19 Page 75 3 Social security as a developmental institution? The relative efficacy of poor relief provisions under the English Old Poor Law Richard M. Smith In the 1960s and 1970s, it was widely believed that ‘development’ in the West was both a fundamentally economically driven process and one which had exploded into life with the world’s first industrial revolution, which occurred in Britain between 1780 and 1850. This was reflected in the statistical narrative of growth researched by Deane and Cole and in the influential

in History, historians and development policy
Emmanuelle Strub

accidents, the failure of that duty having the character of an inexcusable fault as defined by Article L452-1 of the Social Security Code, when the employer was, or should have been, aware of the danger to which the employee was exposed and failed to take the necessary measures to protect him from it. ( Cours d’appel, Paris, 2018 ) Duty of care caused security

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Swati Mehta Dhawan
Julie Zollmann

and costs associated with sponsoring permits and costs of social security contributions. Refugees worry that taking a job could mean losing humanitarian assistance ( Durable Solutions Platform, 2020 ; Fallah et al. , 2021 ). Humanitarian actors have tried to promote home-based businesses (including e-commerce more recently) as an alternative to wage work, particularly for refugee women. Our study participants

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Cathrine Brun
Cindy Horst

what could be called socially embedded humanitarianism instead can be found in related fields and in situations that, if humanitarian actors were present, would have been described in humanitarian terms. We find them in research on urban displacement ( Sanyal, 2021 ; Archer and Dodman, 2017 ), community resilience and social security ( Bankoff, 2007 ; Hilhorst, 2018 ), philanthropy ( Bornstein, 2009 ), hospitality ( Brun, 2010 ), religious aid

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A necessary dialogue

The substantive and methodological contributions of professional historians to development policy debates was marginal, whether because of the dominance of economists or the inability of historians to contribute. There are broadly three ways in which history matters for development policy. These include insistence on the methodological principles of respect for context, process and difference; history is a resource of critical and reflective self-awareness about the nature of the discipline of development itself; and history brings a particular kind of perspective to development problems . After establishing the key issues, this book explores the broad theme of the institutional origins of economic development, focusing on the cases of nineteenth-century India and Africa. It demonstrates that scholarship on the origins of industrialisation in England in the late eighteenth century suggests a gestation reaching back to a period during which a series of social institutional innovations were pioneered and extended to most citizens of England. The book examines a paradox in China where an emphasis on human welfare characterized the rule of the eighteenth-century Qing dynasty, and has been demonstrated in modern-day China's emphasis on health and education. It provides a discussion on the history of the relationship between ideology and policy in public health, sanitation in India's modern history and the poor health of Native Americans. The book unpacks the origins of public education, with a focus on the emergency of mass literacy in Victorian England and excavates the processes by which colonial education was indigenized throughout South-East Asia.

Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

The Welfare State 2 ➤ Definition of the term ‘Welfare State’ ➤ What is included as part of the Welfare State ➤ Basic principles of the Welfare State ➤ The future of the Welfare State This short chapter is designed to introduce the subject of the Welfare State as a complete concept before we discuss some of its individual elements – education, health and social security – in further chapters. The origins and principles of the Welfare State will be discussed and the changing attitude of the parties and their policy makers to it will be traced. DEFINITION There

in Understanding British and European political issues
Merging social policy with the national security state
Charlotte Heath-Kelly

significant potential for organised disorder. The concept of “national security”, Neocleous argues ( 2006 ), emerged from the concept of “social security”, because it drew more heavily on the original logic of the welfare state than it did the “national defence” logic that organised the military. Historically, then, social security and national security

in Vulnerability
Open Access (free)
The bridge, the fund and insurance in Dar es Salaam
Irmelin Joelsson

private insurance schemes, nor with the word for social security, hifadhi ya jamii , connoting large-scale welfare programmes. The way in which ‘insurance’ surfaces is rather through a series of practices and manifestations, as a set of skills and assets that often, but not always, include networking, speculation, building (and burning) bridges, hedging and hinging, plotting and scheming, making investments and sometimes withdrawing from those investments. As such, ‘insurance’ is a form of infrastructure that draws social and material life together in order to hedge

in African cities and collaborative futures
Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

functions were subsumed by the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) in the 1974 reorganisation of the NHS. The DHSS and its predecessor, the Ministry of Health, had attempted to exert more central control over and unification of the vaccination programme. This was seen in the surveillance of local authority uptake statistics; a growing role for the medical civil service through bodies such as the JCVI; and national control over the provision and funding of vaccine supplies to the regions. These issues of localism did not disappear. General

in Vaccinating Britain