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The towns of later medieval Italy were one of the high points of urban society and culture in Europe before the industrial revolution. This book provides more inclusive and balanced coverage of Italian urban life in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In looking for the chief features of Italian communal cities, it focuses on: the unity of city and dependent countryside, the stability of population, urban functions, the development of public spaces, social composition, the development of autonomous institutions, and civic culture. The book begins with three of these: Bonvesin da la Riva's innovative description of Milan, Giovanni da Nono's more conventional, but lively description of Padua, and an anonymous, verse description of Genoa. It also focuses on the buildings and their decoration, and urban 'social services'. The book then addresses Italian civic religion. It explores production and commerce: the effects of monetary affluence, the guilds and markets, government interventions to stimulate production, to regulate exchange, and to control the city's population. The book deals with social groups and social tensions: popolo against magnates, noble clans against each another, men against women, young men against city elders, Christians against Jews, freemen against slaves, food riots and tax revolts, acts of resistance and indecency. Finally, it examines the great variety of political regimes in late-medieval Italy: from consolidated communes such as Florence or Venice, to stable or unstable 'tyrannies' in Pisa, Ferrara or Verona.

Sean Healy
and
Victoria Russell

of search and rescue vessels starting close to Libya and finishing in Italy. The report and video presented the existence of legal and coordinated rescue operations from outside Libyan territorial waters as ‘evidence’ of an ‘illegal human traffic operation’. The report and video then concluded that more asylum seekers, refugees and migrants would ‘undermine Europe’s stability raising racially motivated social tensions

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

the way in which the war encouraged ‘American boys and girls take responsibilities as little citizens of the world’ ( Studebaker, 1919 : 7). It is in this peacetime, interwar period that the child surfaced as a universal humanitarian subject. During a time in which there were political and social tensions emerging in response to rising Bolshevism, the child appealed to American aid workers who pressed for continued activity particularly in Eastern Europe where needs were greatest. The child represented an innocent, apolitical subject, an object of pity that

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Popular entertainment in nineteenth-century London
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This book describes life in London for ordinary people during the first half of the nineteenth century, exploring the social tensions and opportunities created by the industrial revolution and urbanisation. It demonstrates how such conditions forced traditional amusements left over from the pre-industrial world of leisure, travelling entertainments and broadsides, to adapt and change, or, in other words, to increase their overtly violent content to continue to attract paying customers. The book shows that, in many respects, the Victorian popular imagination was bloodier, much more explicit, and more angry and turbulent than historians have thus far been prepared to acknowledge. It discusses the commonalities in culture and outlook that continued to exist between the lower-middle class and sections of skilled workers after the somewhat artificial division enforced by the Great Reform Act of 1832. The book turns our attention to the role and presentation of violence in the range of genres that comprised early nineteenth-century popular culture. The theme of violence, therefore, became central to scaffold culture during the early nineteenth century. The book also shows how the broadside trade, a hangover from the eighteenth-century popular literature of crime, was dramatically expanded and intensified during the early decades of the nineteenth century with developments in technology and changes in the penal code. It also discusses the way in which Edward Lloyd launched his career in cheap instalment fiction, publishing a wide range of sensational periodicals, penny novelettes and penny miscellanies from the 1830s onwards.

Selected sources
Author:

This book is the first collection of translated sources on towns in medieval England between 1100 and 1500. Drawing on a variety of written evidence for the significan and dynamic period, it provides an overview of English medieval urban history. Readers are invited to consider the challenges and opportunities presented by a wide range of sources. The merchant, for example, is seen from different angles - as an economic agent, as a religious patron and in Chaucer's fictional depiction. The prominence of London and the other major cities is reflected in the selection, but due attention is also given to a number of small market towns. Occasions of conflict are represented, as are examples of groups and societies which both contributed to and helped to contain the tensions within urban society. Changing indicators of wealth and poverty are considered, together with evidence for more complex questions concerning the quality of life in the medieval town. The book moves between the experience of urban life and contemporary perceptions of it - from domestic furnishings to legends of civic origins and plays in which townspeople enacted their own history.

Abstract only
Trevor Dean

social groups and social tensions: popolo against magnates, noble clans against each another, men against women, young men against city elders, Christians against Jews, freemen against slaves, food riots and tax revolts, acts of resistance and indecency. Finally, Chapter V examines the great variety of political regimes in late-medieval Italy: from consolidated communes such as Florence or Venice, to

in The towns of Italy in the later Middle Ages
Trevor Dean

weapons in the city, suburbs and district of Bologna, day and night … 67 Social tensions in the kingdom of Naples, 1338–9 In Naples, as the city grew under the Angevin dynasty, tension developed over participation in local government between the older districts ( piazze ), predominantly

in The towns of Italy in the later Middle Ages
Abstract only
Service, gender and the early modern state
Maria Ågren

book has instead been microhistorical: charting social tensions and how they were dealt with in everyday life, the book unpicks the detailed mechanisms of state formation. Once uncovered, these mechanisms do, however, speak to a broad range of scholarly issues, including macrosociological concerns. To build something new, one needs something with which to begin. Throughout this period, ideas about what service to others meant coloured early modern states, their administrations and the conditions of the people who embodied them. Like other servants, state servants

in The state as master
Scenarios in south east Europe
Christian Giordano

force surplus, heightened an already dire critical situation. Added to this was the international recession between the two world wars, which brought down both agricultural produce prices and exports. In most of Europe’s south eastern countries, these economic factors have created a widespread atmosphere of social tension that has often broken out into bloody revolts such as the well-known case of the Romanian farmers in the spring of 1907 (Castellan 1994: 51). This endemic rebelliousness, reinforced by sweeping historical events such as the Russian Revolution

in Potentials of disorder
War monuments and the contradictions of Japan’s post-imperial commemoration
Barak Kushner

reconstructed memorials of the war will be examined: a tower, a ‘love statue’, Japan’s most important Shinto shrine, and a local council memorial. The aim is to investigate how venerating or denying aspects of Japan’s imperial glory resulted in continued social tensions in the context of post-war Japan’s diplomatic and constitutional commitment to the promotion of peace. A grand imperial

in Sites of imperial memory