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France and its war dead in 1914 and 1915
Adrien Douchet
Taline Garibian
, and
Benoît Pouget

The aim of this article is to shed light on the conditions under which the funerary management of human remains was carried out by the French authorities during the early years of the First World War. It seeks to understand how the urgent need to clear the battlefield as quickly as possible came into conflict with the aspiration to give all deceased an individualised, or at the very least dignified, burial. Old military funerary practices were overturned and reconfigured to incorporate an ideal that sought the individual identification of citizen soldiers. The years 1914–15 were thus profoundly marked by a clash between the pragmatism of public health authorities obsessed with hygiene, the infancy of emerging forensic science, the aching desire of the nation to see its children buried individually and various political and military imperatives related to the conduct of the war.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Pitt Rivers and collecting ‘Primitive Warfare’
Christopher Evans

The British military contribution to the recording of the past during the nineteenth century has generally been overlooked and has really only been seriously appreciated by (Sir) Mortimer Wheeler. One of the twentieth century’s leading archaeologists, a flamboyant public personality and, himself, a very successful soldier serving in both world wars (eventually holding the rank of brigadier), Wheeler championed a number of military archaeologists, particularly Lieutenant-General Augustus Pitt Rivers – ‘the master’ ( Figure 4.1 ). Yet it should be recognised how

in Dividing the spoils

This book re-examines the campaign experience of British soldiers in Africa during the period 1874–1902—the zenith of the Victorian imperial expansion—and does so from the perspective of the regimental soldier. The book utilises a number of letters and diaries, written by regimental officers and other ranks, to allow soldiers to speak for themselves about their experience of colonial warfare. The sources demonstrate the adaptability of the British army in fighting in different climates, over demanding terrain and against a diverse array of enemies. They also uncover soldiers' responses to army reforms of the era as well as the response to the introduction of new technologies of war.


This book provides a critical exposition of the international law concerning child soldiers. It starts by looking at the situation of child soldiers in the world today, examining why children are recruited into armed forces and groups; why they volunteer for military service; and, once recruited, what treatment they receive. The book explores how perceptions of childhood and children's rights have changed, and how this has affected the ways in which child soldiers have been treated. It describes the activities of the United Nations with regard to the child soldier phenomenon. The book examines the legal regulation of the recruitment and use of children in hostilities. It shows that although international law comprehensively regulates the recruitment and use of child soldiers, owing to the plethora of treaties on the subject, states' obligations continue to differ and children can still lawfully be recruited and used to participate in armed conflict. The book discusses how, once recruited into armed forces and groups, international law treats child soldiers. It considers the status of child soldiers as combatants and as persons in the power of an adverse party in both international and internal armed conflicts, and states' obligations with regard the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of child soldiers. An unusual feature of how child soldiers are viewed is that they are often seen as both victims of human rights abuses and as human rights violators. Finally, the book examines the extent to which the recruitment and use of child soldiers is an international crime.

A dominion responsibility
Kent Fedorowich

the ‘returned man’ is a curious specimen and difficult, he demands attention on every occasion. 1 The sudden ending of hostilities in November 1918 and the need to repatriate Canadian veterans quickly made it imperative that Ottawa formulate a broader soldier

in Unfit for heroes
Experience and narratives in the Low Countries (1567–1648)
Vincenzo Lavenia

9 Chaplains and soldiers: experience and narratives in the Low Countries (1567–1648) Vincenzo Lavenia Breda and related matters The Surrender of Breda (Las lanzas) is surely one of the most famous images to come down to us from the Eighty Years’ War.1 Art historians have established that, since it was painted some ten years after the event, Diego de Velázquez sought inspiration from a number of maps and accounts of the war, one of ­which – ­and perhaps the most ­important – ­was that of Ambrogio Spinola’s confessor, Herman Hugo (1588–1629).2 The fine

in Early modern war narratives and the Revolt in the Low Countries
Abstract only
Robert H. MacDonald

fellow adventurers a fraternity select beyond measure. They had served a cause greater than self. The ‘reality’ Hamilton-Browne and Hyatt described gives us parallel images of imperialism as it was cobbled together or reconstructed in memory by two soldiers of fortune. Hamilton-Browne knew New Zealand for five years in the 1870s, and southern Africa for about twenty-five years after; Hyatt sailed around

in The language of empire
Matthew Happold

In recent years, the participation of children in armed conflict has become an issue of international concern. There are a large number of child soldiers in the world today and it is believed that their number is growing. Pictures of children toting AK-47s in various conflicts around the globe have appeared on television and in our newspapers. Child soldiers have been stereotyped as either feral children, amoral and

in Child soldiers in international law
J.W.M. Hichberger

as J. Noel Paton’s Home carries a range of meanings: about the nature of man as warrior, of woman as the homemaker who merely waits, about the reverence of the strong for the gentle or weak, about the domestic nature of the British soldier, the domestic respectability of the working classes, and many more. The meanings operate at different levels and are interwoven in a series of complex

in Images of the army
The morality of capacity-increasing technologies in the military

Throughout history, states have tried to create the perfect combatant, with superhuman physical and cognitive features akin to those of comic book superheroes. However, the current innovations have nothing to do with the ones from the past, and their development goes beyond a simple technological perspective. On the contrary, they are raising the prospect of a human-enhancement revolution that will change the ways in which future wars will be fought and may even profoundly alter the foundations upon which our modern societies are built. This book discusses the full ethical implications of these new technologies, making it a unique resource for students and scholars interested in the morality of warfare.

Refusing to adopt a binary vision, political theorist Jean-François Caron argues that, when analysed from an ethical viewpoint, the development and use of capacity-increasing technologies in the military is far more complex than it first appears, since it presents us with a significant moral dilemma. On the one hand, enhancing soldiers’ capacities can be interpreted as a moral obligation on the part of the military. On the other, such technologies might also end up harming fundamental moral principles of warfare. Without condemning them as evil and inadmissible, Professor Caron proposes a nuanced and balanced appraisal of capacity-increasing technologies in the military as a tool that ought to be used contingently on the respect of certain moral criteria.