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Series: Beginnings
Author: Steven Earnshaw

Terms used to describe artistic practices have different meanings from their common usage, but 'realism' as an aesthetic idea cannot be too far removed from the way we would talk about something 'real'. This book explores the artistry and aesthetics of realist literature, along with the assumptions of realist literature. It examines the different ways in which theorists, critics and philosophers conceptualise 'realism'. The book argues that a 'realist' sensibility is the ground on which other modes of literature often exist. It considers verisimilitude that is associated with the complexity of realism, describing the use of realism in two ways: capital 'R' and small 'r'. A set of realist novels is used to explore preliminary definition of realism. The STOP and THINK section lists some points to consider when thinking about realist works. The book looks at the characteristics of the Realist novel. It deals with the objections raised in discussions of Realism, from the Realist period and twentieth- and twenty-first century criticisms. The book provides information on the novel genre, language that characterises Realism, and selection of novel material. It looks at crucial elements such as stage design, and a technical feature often overlooked, the aside, something which seems non-realistic, and which might offer another view on Realism. The book talks about some writers who straddled both periods from the 1880s and 1890s onwards, until the 1920s/1930s, gradually moved away from Realism to modernism. Literary realism, and Aristotle's and Plato's works in relation to realism are also discussed.

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Steven Earnshaw

For the theatre must not be ‘realistic’ (Guillaume Apollinaire) drama is no mere setting up of the camera to nature … (George Bernard Shaw) ‘Cup-and-saucer’ Realism versus melodrama In turning to drama it is important to recognise that concentrating on the textual aspect alone would give us only a limited insight into its relationship with literary Realism. In this chapter, therefore, as well as the texts themselves, I will look at other crucial elements such as stage design, and a technical feature often overlooked – the aside – something which

in Beginning realism
Der Blaue Reiter and its legacies
Author: Dorothy Price

This book presents new research on the histories and legacies of the German Expressionist group, Der Blaue Reiter, the founding force behind modernist abstraction. For the first time Der Blaue Reiter is subjected to a variety of novel inter-disciplinary perspectives, ranging from a philosophical enquiry into its language and visual perception, to analyses of its gender dynamics, its reception at different historical junctures throughout the twentieth century, and its legacies for post-colonial aesthetic practices. The volume offers a new perspective on familiar aspects of Expressionism and abstraction, taking seriously the inheritance of modernism for the twenty-first century in ways that will help to recalibrate the field of Expressionist studies for future scholarship. Der Blaue Reiter still matters, the contributors argue, because the legacies of abstraction are still being debated by artists, writers, philosophers and cultural theorists today.

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Niharika Dinkar

technologies and Postscript their transformation of the nocturnal landscape through the dramatic chaos of paintings like The City in the Night (c. 1925) or the rendition of night-­time entertainment spaces like Madane Theatre. Ratan Parimoo’s alternative genealogy for Gaganendranath Tagore’s interest in cubism relates his experience to lighting and stage design in theatre, drawing from Gordon Craig’s set designs which tended to replace illusionist interiors with lofty symbolic form illuminated with a mass of light and shade. A secondary influence, from the world of

in Empires of light
Christine Kiehl

particularly from a 1950s picture of a mental asylum. Maragnani identified Parr as: 107 R&G 10_Tonra 01 11/10/2013 16:22 Page 108 108 Howard Barker’s Art of Theatre A chronicler of our age. In the face of the constantly growing flood of images released by the media […] he enables us to see things that have seemed familiar to us in completely new way. The motifs he chooses are strange, the colours are garish and the perspectives are unusual. His weapons to counter the propaganda of published images are: criticism, seduction and humour.15 Blanche-Neige’s stage design was

in Howard Barker’s Art of Theatre
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Stephen Orgel

Notable Antiquity of Great Britain, vulgarly called Stone-Heng , 1655. 12.7 Inigo Jones, “A street in perspective of fair building,” stage design for Ben Jonson’s masque The

in Spectacular Performances
Katia Pizzi

.g. Marinetti and Depero, retrenched into mannerist or provincial folds. His ‘sustained European vocation’ was built on a broad technical and theoretical range ‘pursued in international arenas’.1 Crispolti hailed Prampolini as ‘the most robust theoretician’ of mechanical art,2 as well as one of the most vocal and vigorous international exponents of this practice in the visual arts, architecture and stage design. Relying on a stage emptied of the human presence, his emphasis on scenography suited perfectly the template of futurist synthetic theatre. Through the medium of

in Italian futurism and the machine
Bryce Lease

social disorientation and the widely felt pessimism that accompanied the introduction of liberal capitalism added to its monumental success. Often referred to as ‘intellectual’ by the Polish theatre critical establishment, Jarocki’s productions were known for their cold precision, mathematical specificity, emotional restraint and careful stage design. Anna R. Burzyńska (2012) argued that Jarocki created performances for skeptics, doubters or rationalists who longed to experience significance in the theatre without recourse to cheap sentiment or gaudy grandeur. Ślub

in After ’89
Open Access (free)
A theatre maker in every sense
Brian Singleton

unable to get just the shade that was required, and I have had to get the cloth specially woven, after a great deal of experimenting with dyes. This was done with the ‘rainbow’ dress in ‘Othello’. But she also reveals that dresses are not her only interest in terms of stage design: I work morning, noon and night, in the theatre, always pottering about at the dresses, the furniture, or something. Of course, my interest in our productions does not begin and end with studying my part and playing it. I look upon the wardrobes as my own special department, and supervised

in Stage women, 1900–50
Katherine Kuenzli

comparative viewing in his Developmental History of Modern Art) and stage design.36 Macke’s essay for the almanac lived up to Marc’s expectations. It opens with a striking series of juxtapositions that stem from Macke’s dual interests in Parisian painting and avant-garde theatre. Employing a rich, synaesthetic language, Macke invokes plays by Maeterlinck and Ibsen, medieval mystery plays, van Gogh’s and Cézanne’s painting, cellos, bells, and the whistle of a steam locomotive. He finds these sights and sounds to be articulations of a common spirit and illustrates his essay

in German Expressionism