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Laurinda Abreu

9 Epidemics, quarantine and state control in Portugal, 1750–1805 Laurinda Abreu Introduction On 15 May 1756, some two months after reports had arrived of an outbreak of plague in Algiers and just a few days after his own appointment as Secretary of State for Home Affairs, the most important government post in Portugal, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, the future Marquis of Pombal, ordered Dom João de Lencastre, Colonel of the Naval Regiment, to proceed immediately to the fort of Paço d’Arcos (on the northern shore of the mouth of the Tagus, west of Lisbon

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Austrian Bukovina and Dalmatia in the late nineteenth century
Carlos Watzka

The chapter investigates two particular cases of centre–periphery relations in the shaping of epidemic prevention efforts. It covers the period 1860–1910 looking at the state disease control measures within Bukovina and Dalmatia. Bukinova, at the time, was in the easternmost part of the Austrian Empire, bordering Russia and Romania, while Dalmatia was the southernmost region, then bordering Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro and the Adriatic. Both regions were comparatively poor and marked significantly by pre-modern social and cultural structures. The implementation of planned measures against the spread of epidemics such as cholera and smallpox, as instructed by the Viennese central government, ran into serious obstacles. A considerable number of people held alternative views on the causes of epidemic illnesses and their prevention or treatment (and even on the desirability of a state health policy at all) and these differed remarkably from the ideas of the medically educated elites within the state bureaucracy, responsible for designing public health policy. There was major dissent over both a collective spending of financial resources and the governmental intentions relating to restrictions on everyday life. In a significant instance, the tiny group of Lipovans in Bukovina – who lived according to the ‘ancient customs’ of the Orthodox Church – managed to avoid most measures against a smallpox epidemic for several years, above all, resisting vaccination. In 1898 this led to the death of more than 150 community members, mostly children of a young age, and a mortality rate much higher than in the rest of the province.

in Medicalising borders
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez
Ammar Sabouni

January 2020 ). Reuters ( 2017 ), ‘ Syria Evacuations Resume, Bringing Damascus-Area Town under State Control ’, 19 April . (accessed 30 January 2020 ). Scheumann , W. ( 2014 ), ‘ Water and Electricity – Weapons in the Syrian Conflict ’, Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) , 30 June.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

challenged. The ground gained by so called ‘illiberal democracy’ is prodigious, not merely in terms of the number of countries where illiberal politics is alive and thriving, many of which are in the West (the US, much of the EU, the UK) but in terms of the creeping legitimacy that attends right-wing solutions to ongoing social and political problems. This is nowhere truer than in the major new power in the international system, China, where a version of state-controlled capitalism co-exists alongside a principled rejection of liberalism. The

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

This collection brings together work on forms of popular television produced within the authoritarian regimes of Europe after World War II. Ten chapters based on new and original research examine approaches to programming and individual programmes in Spain, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Romania, the Soviet Union and the GDR at a time when they were governed as dictatorships or one-party states. Rather than foregrounding the political economy of television or its role as an overt tool of state propaganda, the focus is on popular television-everyday programming that ordinary people watched. An editorial introduction examines the question of what can be considered ‘popular’ when audience appeal is often secondary to the need for state control. With familiar measures of popularity often absent, contributors adopt various approaches in applying the term to the programming they examine and in considering the reasons for its popularity. Drawing on surviving archives, scripts and production records, contemporary publications, YouTube clips, and interviews with producers and performers, its chapters recover examples of television programming history unknown beyond national borders and often preserved largely in the memories of the audiences who lived with them. Popular Television in Authoritarian Europe represents a significant intervention in transnational television studies, making these histories available to scholars for the first time, encouraging comparative enquiry and extending the reach – intellectually and geographically – of European television history.

Religious culture and civic life in medieval northern Italy

Most people would agree that the hospital functions as one of the 'first duties of an organized society' as a public service for those members of the community who are in need. In the thirteenth century, hospitals represented a nexus of exchange between church officials, the community, the needy, and the pious or ambitious individual. This book presents a survey that offers an overview of the role of the hospital in affairs of the urban community, suggesting how changes within that community were reflected in the activities of the hospital. It locates the rise of the hospital movement in northern Italy within the context of the changing religious, social, and political environment of the city-states. The book introduces the hospital's central function in the distribution and administration of charity. It illustrates how the hospital and other charitable organizations played a role in the appropriation of power and influence by urban citizens. A comprehensive investigation of twelfth and thirteenth century hospitals' foundational charters follows. The book then delves into a detailed description of the physical plant of the hospital, the daily life of individuals, and rules and statutes followed by its members. It considers the social composition of donors, workers, and recipients of hospital services. Jurisdictional disputes among the city leaders, the community, individual religious orders, ecclesiastical authorities, and larger political forces. Finally, the book explores the process of consolidation and bureaucratization of hospitals in the fifteenth century and the emergence of state control over social services.


This book represents the first attempt to write a comprehensive account of performance art in Eastern Europe - the former communist, socialist and Soviet countries of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe - since the 1960s. It demonstrates performance art, which encompasses a range of genres, among them body art, happenings, actions and performance. In exploring the manifestations and meanings of performance art, the book highlights the diversity of artistic practice, moments and ways in which performance emerged, and its relationship to each country's sociopolitical climate. The book discusses 21 countries and over 250 artists, exploring the manner in which performance art developed concurrently with the genre in the West. It examines how artists used their bodies in performance to navigate the degrees of state control over artistic production and cultivate personalised forms of individual integration and self-expression of body, gender, politics, identity, and institutional critique. A comparative analysis of examples of performance art addressing gender-related issues from across the socialist and post-socialist East is then presented. The themes addressed provide local cultural and historical references in works concerning beauty, women's sexuality and traditional notions of gender. Artists' efforts to cope with the communist environment, the period of transition and the complexities of life in the post-communist era are highlighted. Artists during the communist period adopted performance art as a free-form, open-ended means of expression to give voice to concepts, relationships and actions that otherwise would not have been possible in the official realm of art.

The genesis of Israeli policies of population management, surveillance and political control towards the Palestinian minority

Widely regarded as expert in techniques of surveillance and political control, Israel has been successful in controlling a native population for a long time. Despite tremendous challenges, it has maintained a tight grip over a large Palestinian population in the territories it occupied in the 1967 war. Moreover, it has effectively contained the Palestinian minority inside its 1948 borders. This book discusses the foundation of an Israeli discourse about the Palestinian minority, which Israeli leaders called birour or clarification, and the circumstances of its emergence and crystallization. It talks about the policy of constructing the Palestinians both as non-Jews and as an assortment of insular minorities. The fate of this minority was not only an Israeli internal affair but also an issue of concern to the international community. An analysis of the legal and institutional frameworks, and the role of state power in categorizing the Palestinians, follows. The book also analyses the ways state control and surveillance were implemented at the level of the locality. The book highlights the way state educational policy not just fostered the segmentation described earlier but promoted among students and educators. It then takes up the question of political rights and their meaning under the rule of Military Government. It concludes with personal reflections on the thousands of minutes, protocols, reports, plans and personal messages.

A generation of loyal patriots?
Anna Saunders

. Their appeal was, however, only strengthened by the lack of attractive GDR alternatives, largely resulting from strict state controls. This was especially true for rock music and, although a number of songs which overtly supported the principles of socialism still proved popular, the willingness to write political songs declined during the 1980s. It was noted, for example, that in comparison to international projects such as ‘Live Aid’ and the ‘Red Wedge’ in Britain, or ‘Artists in action’ in the FRG, musicians in the GDR were neglecting their political duties.182

in Honecker’s children

the marine environment, a port State may detain the ship under the various powers of port State control provided for by IMO safety conventions (discussed below), until the ship has been repaired and no longer represents a danger. Port States often prefer that course of action to arrest and prosecution as it involves less expense and effort. As an alternative to exercising enforcement jurisdiction

in The law of the sea