The labour movement in Lebanon narrates the history of the Lebanese labour movement from the early twentieth century to today. Trade unionism has largely been a failure, because of state interference, tactical co-optation and the strategic use of sectarianism by an oligarchic elite, together with the structural weakness of a service-based laissez-faire economy. The Lebanese case study holds wider significance for the Arab world and for comparative studies of labour. Bou Khater’s conclusions are significant not only for trade unionism, but also for new forms of workers’ organisations and social movements. The failure of trade unions reveals a great deal about Lebanon’s current political moment and how it got there, but also how events are set to affect future movements. The book challenges the perceived wisdom on the rise of the labour movement in the 1950s and 1960s and its subsequent fall during the post-war period from the 1990s onwards. What is perceived as a fall after the end of the civil war was merely the intensification of liberal economic policies and escalating political intervention, which had already been in place since independence in 1943. Hiding under the guise of preserving sectarian balances, the post-war elite incorporated the labour movement into the state to guarantee their command of the hollowed-out state. Beyond controlling the labour movement to avoid a challenge to the system, the post-war period was characterised by political forces, using the General Confederation of Workers in Lebanon (GCWL) as an instrument in their disputes over power, rents and benefits.
created, as well as their past political affiliations or alliances. In this regard,
Collier and Collier’s study shows the impact of stateincorporation during early
industrialisation on the trajectory of labour movements in Latin America. By stateincorporation, Collier and Collier refer to the extent of political unity among different
elites towards imposing a new political and institutional framework on the labour movement. 25 The study examines the labour movement
in eight Latin American countries – Chile, Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico
can implement the law without political interference. Regulators should report to Parliament and give regular updates to public bodies on how the implementation of the regulations has developed but neither legislature nor executive should determine the mandate for implementation. Ultimately, regulators enforce and educate. First, they are there to ensure the law is upheld. Second, and equally as important, is their educative function. Given that lobbying regulation will be new to any stateincorporating such legislation regulators are crucial to assisting both the
.11 It was this belief in equality as a key basis
for republicanism that was behind the description of an ideal state, incorporating the abolition of private property and the establishment of a community
of goods, that was proposed by Milord Stanhope, one of the central characters
in Des Droits et des devoirs du citoyen.12
bolingbroke and france
While the republicanism of the ancient city-states – and especially that
of Lycurgus’ Sparta – certainly came closest to Mably’s ideal form of government, he insisted
an alternative performance of citizenship that has the
potential fundamentally to destabilise militarisation and the frames by
which the stateincorporates individuals as political actors. Conscientious
objection to military service always engages with the gendered politics
of militarisation, whether it be in mimetic terms (framing objection, not
soldiering, as brave, heroic and sacrificial) or in seeking to reconfigure and
demilitarise gender norms and contest the means by which individuals
should attain citizenship without the need to serve in the armed forces
English identity and the Scottish ‘other’, 1586–1625
Jenna M. Schultz
an anonymous document entitled Union by
Concurrency of the Homager State with the Superior; Effects of Such Union (1604),
the author argued that the union’s success hinged upon a superior stateincorporating the inferior. The author noted, ‘seing they haue w[i]thstood it so many
years by bearing themselues independent & by effusion of bloud, & specially
because of terms of honour. For that the Nobility of a state homager should
yeald to the same dignity of the dominant.’74 He only supported a union with
Scotland if the kingdom accepted English rule and agreed to
English responses to the accession of King James VI and I
Genealogy of the High and Mighty Monarch, Iames, by the grace of God, king of Great Brittayne (London, 1604).
102 ‘The British Isles existed as a geographical term; but there was no term for, and no concept of, a single polity, entity, stateincorporating the islands of Britain and Ireland’: Morrill, ‘The British problem’, 5.
103 [Bacon], A Briefe Discovrse , A7 v –A8 r .
104 Hall, The Kings Prophecie , A8 r .
105 Fletcher, A Briefe and Familiar Epistle , A3 r .
106 James Harrison (Henrisoun), An exhortacion to the Scottes, to conforme them
autonomy (van Rythoven 2015 , 5).
Fear is a necessary feature of securitisation theory. The CS contends that security is about survival, or in other words, ‘when an issue is presented as an existential threat to a designated referent object (traditionally, but not necessarily, the State, incorporating government, territory, and society)’ (Buzan et al.
1998 , 21), which implies that the referent object is fear-inducing. The emotional disposition of audiences, in that sense, is central to the success or failure of the speech
State formation, political consolidation and reform
disliked central authority and resented Ibn Saud's association with ‘infidel’ foreigners. They also strayed into neighbouring provinces and across new territorial boundaries established by the British with Iraq and Transjordan. New ports in Jubail and Qatif enhanced Saudi trade, while the Jeddah Treaty of 1927 gave the nascent Saudi state (incorporating the Hejaz and Nejd) independence. After the Ikhwan Revolt in 1930, which government troops and the British in Kuwait played major roles in defeating, further Saudi institutionalisation and centralisation occurred. Still