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Julie Thorpe

5 ‘Ostjude’ as anti-Semitic stereotype Just as minority politics drew activists and politicians into a common league on behalf of Austrian ‘Germandom’, anti-Semitism united Germannationalists and Austrofascists into a common pan-German front. We saw in the previous two chapters that while German-nationalists and Austrofascists sometimes differed in where they drew the boundaries of a universal pan-German community – notably over the question of religion – they found a common footing when it came to constructing a panGerman identity within the Austrian state

in Pan-Germanism and the Austrofascist state, 1933–38
Exploring the Orissan princely states
Biswamoy Pati

6 Interrogating stereotypes: exploring the Orissan princely states This chapter examines the historical basis of labels attributed to the andharua mulakas (the ‘dark zones’) of Orissa and focuses on seven princely states. While popular memory remembers the people in the princely states as garhjatias (people who lived in garhs or forts) who accepted and tolerated their despotic chiefs and were Dhenkanalias (a disparaging term for the people of the state of Dhenkanal), it needs to be probed further whether the terror struck by these despots has any empirical

in South Asia from the margins
Mervyn Busteed

1 • Early connections, ‘Little Ireland’ and stereotypes This chapter will trace the development of the earliest links between Manchester and Ireland and, noting the growth of military and commercial connections, the build-up of a resident Irish-born population down to 1841. It will then discuss the development of the Irish neighbourhood of ‘Little Ireland’, the role of Dr James Phillips Kay and other writers in presenting it as the archetypical Irish quarter in Britain and the renewal of historic anti-Irish sentiment in mid-Victorian Britain. Early connections

in The Irish in Manchester c. 1750–1921
Pornography: The Musical (2003)
Catalin Brylla

Brian Hill’s musical documentaries embody the essence of Judith Butler’s notion of ‘performativity’ as the discourse used in identity formation. By asking his characters to sing their stories in addition to traditional interviews, Hill creates multiple screen identities, which elicits an embodied intimacy that is as much about freeing marginalised people to enact themselves in front of the camera as it is about revealing the director’s own performance. This article uses a cognitive framework to explore how Hill’s documentary, Pornography: The Musical (2003), leads the spectator to challenge existing social stereotypes of sex workers, as well as schematic ideas about traditional documentary form and function.

Film Studies
Automobility in the Greek Cinema of the 1960s
Sofia-Alexia Papazafeiropoulou

This article examines the role of automobility in the Greek cinema of the 1960s. It focuses on the representations of the automobile’s domestication in selected films. Particular attention is paid to the technical and symbolic reconstruction of space and the redefinition of socioeconomic and gender stereotypes. The article’s conclusions concern the role of the automobile in a specific period within Greek film history, as well as its place within cinema in general and in the theoretical and material construction of what is perceived as ‘modernity’.

Film Studies
Pam Perkins

This article examines the travel writing and fiction of the physician and writer John Moore in conjunction with the work of his younger contemporary Ann Radcliffe. Moore, who had travelled extensively in Italy while accompanying the Duke of Hamilton on his Grand Tour, was dismissive of the standard eighteenth-century stereotypes of Italian culture and society, but he demonstrates, in both his fiction and non-fictional work, the difficulty of entirely evading such conventions. Placing his work in the context of that of the now much better-known Radcliffe helps to illustrate the ways in which the Gothic discourse of Italy helped to shape the reading and writing of literature that was not necessarily conventionally Gothic.

Gothic Studies
Italian Narratives and the Late Romantic Metrical Tale
Diego Saglia

This essay addresses Gothic constructions of Italy by reconsidering Romantic-period literary works that capitalised on stereotypes of the country as a land ridden with violence, vice and dangers. If Gothic discourse ‘pre-scribed’ Italy as a country of terrifying events, Gothic writings also reworked an Italy that was already ‘pre-scribed’ according to hostile notions within a stratified geo-cultural archive dating back at least to the Renaissance. This combination of disparaging images was not created exclusively on the basis of British anti-Catholic feelings and other cultural hostility. Often it originated from Italian documentary sources and, particularly Italian literature, itself the object of increasing scrutiny in the Romantic period. This essay examines the Gothic construction and uses of Italy in verse tales published in the later Romantic period and inspired by Dante‘s Divina Commedia and Boccaccio‘s Decameron, among them Edward Wilmot‘s Ugolino; or, the Tower of Famine, Felicia Hemans‘s ‘The Maremma’, William Herbert‘s Pia della Pietra, John Keats‘s Isabella and Barry Cornwall‘s A Sicilian Story. These narrative poems employ Italy as an archive of Gothic plots, atmospheres and situations, making plain its double status: that of a fictitious, approximative set of geo-cultural notions, as well as that of a repertoire of fictional materials.

Gothic Studies
Open Access (free)
Valérie Gorin and Sönke Kunkel

’ International Assistance Fund (SAIH), that gained substantial attention on social media for raising awareness on stereotypes used in humanitarian appeals and narratives.) 3 This online exhibition is available on the website of the journal. Works Cited Boltanski , L

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Catherine Akurut

endeavours that focus on ‘identifying the various patterns and mechanisms’ of exclusion of women within a workplace during early struggles for equality. However, the goal of gender-inclusion ‘transcends mere equality’ ( Maryville University, 2020 ) and should ensure that ‘all services, opportunities, and establishments are open to all people and that male and female stereotypes do not define societal roles and expectations’. The criteria for the implementation of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
Tom Scott-Smith

I first wrote about this humanitarian–architect divide a few years ago ( Scott-Smith, 2017 ), many people responded that the divide is often exaggerated, pointing to more sensitive ideas and experienced humanitarians with architectural training. Indeed, the world of humanitarianism includes many architects, and many more architects consider themselves humanitarians. Nevertheless, it is common to find misunderstandings, stereotypes and a substantial difference

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs