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Kara Walker, Kehinde Wiley, DJ Spooky and The Birth of a Nation
Robert Burgoyne

The extraordinary political and cultural controversies generated by The Birth of a Nation (1915) over the past 100 years have centred, for the most part, on its extreme stereotypes of Black characters and imagined Black behaviours, set forth in scenes and images perceived to be so toxic that they have largely been bracketed from critical scrutiny. The racist stereotypes repeatedly

in D.W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation
Julie Thorpe

5 ‘Ostjude’ as anti-Semitic stereotype Just as minority politics drew activists and politicians into a common league on behalf of Austrian ‘Germandom’, anti-Semitism united Germannationalists and Austrofascists into a common pan-German front. We saw in the previous two chapters that while German-nationalists and Austrofascists sometimes differed in where they drew the boundaries of a universal pan-German community – notably over the question of religion – they found a common footing when it came to constructing a panGerman identity within the Austrian state

in Pan-Germanism and the Austrofascist state, 1933–38
Exploring the Orissan princely states
Biswamoy Pati

6 Interrogating stereotypes: exploring the Orissan princely states This chapter examines the historical basis of labels attributed to the andharua mulakas (the ‘dark zones’) of Orissa and focuses on seven princely states. While popular memory remembers the people in the princely states as garhjatias (people who lived in garhs or forts) who accepted and tolerated their despotic chiefs and were Dhenkanalias (a disparaging term for the people of the state of Dhenkanal), it needs to be probed further whether the terror struck by these despots has any empirical

in South Asia from the margins
Puritans, papists and projectors

Early modern stereotypes are often studied as evidence of popular belief, something mired with prejudices and commonly held assumptions. This volume of essays goes beyond this approach, and explores practices of stereotyping as contested processes. To do so the volume draws on recent works on social psychology and sociology. The volume thereby brings together early modern case studies, and explores how stereotypes and their mobilisation shaped various negotiations of power, in spheres of life such as politics, religion, everyday life and knowledge production. The volume highlights early modern men’s and women’s remarkable creativity and agency: godly reformers used the ‘puritan’ stereotype to understand popular aversion to religious discipline; Ben Jonson developed the characters of the puritan and the projector in ways that helped diffuse anxieties about fundamental problems in early modern church and state; playful allusions to London’s ‘sin and sea coal’ permitted a knowing acceptance of urban growth and its moral and environmental costs; Tory polemics accused of ‘popery’ returned the same accusations to Whig Protestants; humanists projected related Christian stereotypes outwards to make sense of Islam and Hinduism in the age of Enlightenment. Case studies collectively point to a paradox: stereotyping was so pervasive and foundational to social life and yet so liable to escalation that collective engagements with it often ended up perpetuating the very processes of stereotyping. By highlighting these dialectics of stereotyping, the volume invites readers to make fresh connections between the early modern past and the present without being anachronistic.

Kate Peters

subjection’. 1 The Ranter, also ‘an uncleane beast’, was ‘much of the make with our Quaker, of the same puddle … their infidelity, villanies, and debochements, are the same’. 2 The conflation of Ranters and Quakers into a shared stereotype of dangerous antinomian fanatic with murky social origins was a common trope: hostile puritan contemporaries Richard Baxter, John Bunyan and Thomas Collier all agreed that they were two of a kind. 3 This shared typology also endured for many years in historians’ treatment of

in Stereotypes and stereotyping in early modern England
Tim Harris

embodies a stereotype of the Scots, or rather of a particular type of Scottish clergyman. The stereotype reflects a prejudice, suggesting as it does that English people tended to prejudge people based on their accent. However, the joke is more particularly anti-Scottish Presbyterian than it is anti-Scottish. The Scottish Presbyterians, who had rebelled against the new prayer book imposed on the Scottish Kirk in 1637, were widely blamed by the English in the later seventeenth century for having caused the Civil War

in Stereotypes and stereotyping in early modern England
Peter Lake

In this chapter I want to talk about puritanism as a stereotype and about anti-puritanism, a discourse organised around that stereotype as an ideology, by which I mean a way of looking at the world and explaining what has gone wrong with it and what to do about it. Anti-puritanism provided a narrative, or series of narratives, about the recent past, the present and immediate future, a narrative that identified the villains and heroes of the piece. It thus provided a way of ordering experience, and of

in Stereotypes and stereotyping in early modern England
Mervyn Busteed

1 • Early connections, ‘Little Ireland’ and stereotypes This chapter will trace the development of the earliest links between Manchester and Ireland and, noting the growth of military and commercial connections, the build-up of a resident Irish-born population down to 1841. It will then discuss the development of the Irish neighbourhood of ‘Little Ireland’, the role of Dr James Phillips Kay and other writers in presenting it as the archetypical Irish quarter in Britain and the renewal of historic anti-Irish sentiment in mid-Victorian Britain. Early connections

in The Irish in Manchester c. 1750–1921
Gender Norm Change during Displacement?
Michelle Lokot

stem from biases held by humanitarian actors about refugees’ lives ( Comes, 2016 ). In the urgency of the humanitarian response, narratives about refugees may thus reflect an ‘orientalist edge’ that reinforces racial and gender stereotypes ( Turner, 2017 : 49). As well as resulting in colonial narratives, quick gender analysis may invoke neoliberal narratives ( Mertens and Myrttinen, 2019 ; Switzer, 2013 ; Chant, 2016 ; Rosamond and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Automobility in the Greek Cinema of the 1960s
Sofia-Alexia Papazafeiropoulou

This article examines the role of automobility in the Greek cinema of the 1960s. It focuses on the representations of the automobile’s domestication in selected films. Particular attention is paid to the technical and symbolic reconstruction of space and the redefinition of socioeconomic and gender stereotypes. The article’s conclusions concern the role of the automobile in a specific period within Greek film history, as well as its place within cinema in general and in the theoretical and material construction of what is perceived as ‘modernity’.

Film Studies