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Kerry Longhurst

Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd 30/06/2004 16:25 Page 5 1 On strategic culture The decision making process in matters of defence is not an abstract construct based purely in the present moment but is, rather, steeped in the beliefs, biases, traditions and cultural identity of the individual country – all of which feeds into its strategic culture.1 [R]ather than obedience or disobedience to an abstract set of stipulative requirements, in times of war what really makes the difference is how a nation state, as a collective identity, ‘behaves’ is the

in Germany and the use of force
Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen

1 Studying German strategic culture Culture theory and security policy The first to explicitly apply the concept of culture to a study of security policy was Jack L. Snyder in his 1977 study, The Soviet Strategic Culture. Snyder, soon followed by other scholars, set out to explain why American and Soviet nuclear strategy apparently reflected different logics of thinking even though the two countries were facing the same geostrategic environment. Snyder’s approach emphasised how differences in domestic factors such as historical experience, political culture, and

in Germany, pacifism and peace enforcement
Kerry Longhurst

Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd 30/06/2004 16:25 Page 25 2 Stunde Null and the ‘construction’ of West German strategic culture Interest politics alone . . . cannot account for Germany’s pacifistic military security policy, nor does it provide a satisfactory explanation of Bonn’s approach to national sovereignty or its aversion to unilateralism. One must look beyond material and political interests to the politics of national identity in post war Germany, which unfolded in searing domestic political debates over rearmament, reunification, and

in Germany and the use of force
Author:

Mobilising the concept of strategic culture, this study develops a framework for understanding developments in German security policy between 1990 and 2003. Germany's contemporary security policies are characterised by a peculiar mix of continuity and change. From abstention in the first Gulf war, to early peacekeeping missions in Bosnia in the early 1990s and a full combat role in Kosovo in 1999, the pace of change in German security policy since the end of the Cold War has been breathtaking. The extent of this change has recently, however, been questioned, as seen most vividly in Berlin's response to ‘9/11’ and its subsequent stalwart opposition to the US-led war on terrorism in Iraq in 2003. Beginning with a consideration of the notion of strategic culture, the study refines and adapts the concept to the case of Germany through a consideration of aspects of the rearmament of West Germany. It then critically evaluates the transformation of the role of the Bundeswehr up to and including the war on terrorism, together with Germany's troubled efforts to enact defence reforms, as well as the complex politics surrounding the policy of conscription. By focusing on both the ‘domestics’ of security policy decision making as well as the changing and often contradictory expectations of Germany's allies, this book provides a comprehensive analysis of the role played by Germany's particular strategic culture in shaping policy choices. It concludes by pointing to the vibrancy of Germany's strategic culture.

This book is about the transformation of Germany's security and defence policy in the time between the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war against Iraq. It traces and explains the reaction of Europe's biggest and potentially most powerful country to the ethnic wars of the 1990s, the emergence of large-scale terrorism, and the new US emphasis on pre-emptive strikes. Based on an analysis of Germany's strategic culture, it portrays Germany as a security actor and indicates the conditions and limits of the new German willingness to participate in international military crisis management that developed over the 1990s. The book debates the implications of Germany's transformation for Germany's partners and neighbours, and explains why Germany said ‘yes’ to the war in Afghanistan, but ‘no’ to the Iraq War. Based on a comprehensive study of the debates of the German Bundestag and actual German policy responses to the international crises between 1991 and 2003, it provides insights into the causes and results of Germany's transformation.

Open Access (free)
The past as prologue
Kerry Longhurst

continuation of conscription, coupled with a static defence budget. On a conceptual level, inspiration for this book derives from the body of literature in the field of security studies on strategic culture. Broadly speaking, strategic culture focuses on the domestic sources of security policy and attempts to identify how the past impacts and shapes contemporary policy behaviour. In contrast to some of the more traditional approaches in security studies, the strategic culture approach is interested in the subjective, nationally specific, aspects of security and defence policy

in Germany and the use of force
An emerging strategic culture?
Richard G. Whitman
and
Toni Haastrup

4 Locating the EU’s strategic behaviour in sub-­Saharan Africa: an emerging strategic culture? Richard G. Whitman and Toni Haastrup There is now a need for a new phase in the Africa-­EU relationship, a new strategic partnership and a Joint Africa–EU Strategy as a political vision and roadmap for the future cooperation between the two continents in existing and new areas and arenas. (Council of the European Union, 2007) Conflict is often linked to state fragility. Countries like Somalia are caught in a vicious cycle of weak governance and recurring conflict. We

in The European Union in Africa
Open Access (free)
Germany, the use of force and the power of strategic culture
Kerry Longhurst

Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd 30/06/2004 16:25 Page 137 7 Conclusions: Germany, the use of force and the power of strategic culture German perspectives on the use of force have evolved rapidly since the ending of the Cold War and today Germany is one of the key contributors to global peacekeeping missions, with an estimated 10,000 Bundeswehr soldiers currently deployed overseas. Seen in this way, Germany has become a ‘net contributor’ to European and international security. Certainly, taboos have been broken and in many ways Germany has

in Germany and the use of force
Liberalism, realism, and constructivism
James W. Peterson
and
Jacek Lubecki

circumstances did not result in the same outcomes. Clearly, countries’ strategic interests are not a simple reflection of their structural circumstances, such as geography and size, but are results of structural circumstances as processed by particular perceptual lenses. Perceptual realities point out us in the direction of constructivist frameworks and concepts such as “strategic culture” and “role theory” as

in Defense policies of East-Central European countries after 1989
Abstract only
Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen

, and where will Germany look for partners in a world of terrorist violence and pre-emptive military strikes? Drawing on theories of strategic culture this book analyses the process and outcome of Germany’s transformation. It shows how the new German security posture is based on a working consensus between two very different domestic schools of thought about international security and Germany’s role in the world. These two competing schools emerged after Germany’s 1945 defeat and crystallised during the post-war period. One emphasised the importance of international

in Germany, pacifism and peace enforcement