Structuralist chickens and liberal humanist eggs
Structuralism is an intellectual movement which began in France in the 1950s and is first seen in the work of the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908–2009) and the literary critic Roland Barthes (1915–80). It is difficult to boil structuralism down to a single ‘bottom-line’ proposition, but if forced to do so I would say that its essence is the belief that things cannot be understood in isolation – they have to be seen in the context of the larger structures they are part of (hence the term ‘structuralism
Some theoretical differences between structuralism and post-structuralism
Is post-structuralism a continuation and development of structuralism or a form of rebellion against it? In one important sense it is the latter, since a very effective way of rebelling is to accuse your predecessors of not having the courage of their convictions. Thus post-structuralists accuse structuralists of not following through the implications of the views about language on which their intellectual system is based. As we saw, one of structuralism's characteristic views is the
One of the pulsions that led me to launch this study is the naively ethical
feeling that we cannot let state technocrats continue like that, in a state
of total civic irresponsibility, and that it would be intolerable and unconscionable for social scientists not to intervene, with all due awareness
of the limitations of their discipline.
If, as Bachelard says, ‘every chemist must fight the alchemist within’,
every sociologist must fight the social prophet within that his public
asks him to incarnate.
Pierre Bourdieu and
embedded in our economies.
Now, we turn to explore the framework of neoclassical
economics in more depth, arguing that it is fundamentally unable to
make visible, much less address structural inequalities between and
within countries and groups.
As a result, even if academic economics was to focus
much more on the specific economic realities of different
Structural violence in ecological systems
During the time I knew Alasdair and worked on his small fishing trawler, he told
me Findus’ story again and again. The first time was after a month of patiently tolerating my questions about environmental relations and fishing practices. Alasdair
gently pointed out that I had never asked him about losing friends at sea, and
then he told me about Findus and the wreck of his fishing boat, which still lay on
the seafloor six miles west of the rugged coast of Skye. Almost four years later,
Alasdair brought up Findus
2 A structural constructivist theory of politics
and of European integration
In this chapter, I explore in detail structural constructivism as a theory of
European integration. By structural constructivism I refer to a mostly French
research tradition that develops some of Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical tools
(Bourdieu 1989, 14-25; Ansart 1990; Katshanov and Shmatko 1996, 90-104;
Kauppi 1996, 53-68, 2000). Bourdieu's structural constructivist theory of politics
offers powerful instruments for a critical analysis of political power. In European
studies, the theory
It is this dynamic that informs my concluding framework of ‘structural transformations of demagogic populism’. My aim is not to provide an authoritative account of the Habermasian conception of the public sphere. Rather it is to recoup the structural transformation thesis as a ‘bridge’, albeit schematic, from the demagogy studies towards the present by immanently developing the role of populism and demagogy within it. Habermas's initial structural transformation thesis regarding the public sphere owes much to the first-generation critical theorists, visible in his
The sourcing of cadavers for North American skeletal reference collections occurred immediately after death and targeted the poor and marginalised. In Europe, collections sourced bodies that were buried and unclaimed after some time in cemeteries with no perpetual care mandate, and may have also targeted the underprivileged. The relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and abandonment was examined in a sample of unclaimed remains (603 adults and 98 children) collected from cemeteries in the city of Lisbon, Portugal, that were incorporated in a collection. Results demonstrate that low SES individuals are not more likely to be abandoned nor to be incorporated in the collection than higher SES individuals. Furthermore, historical data indicate that the poorest were not incorporated into the collection, because of burial practices. Although the accumulation of collections in North America was facilitated by structural violence that targeted the poor and marginalised, this phenomenon seems largely absent in the Lisbon collection.
However, the EU also played an important role in facilitating
negotiations, in rendering the border between the North and the South
more permeable, and in making available structural and cohesion funds
that helped to develop the border region’s depressed economy ( Lagana 2017 ). As a result, cross-border
cooperation has increased substantially in the past several years.
This chapter will focus on the EU’s Interreg
Anarchists of the world, unite!
A meso-structural analysis
The need for organization in social life – even the symphony between
organization and society, I would be tempted to say – is so self-evident
that it is mind-boggling that it could ever have been questioned. (Errico
Anarchism in organizations
Despite jokes about “organized anarchists as oxymoronic,” anarchists
clearly self-organize and belong to organizations. Yet, sociological research
has not comprehensively assessed the factors that influence where anarchism thrives and its particular