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Peter Barry

Structuralist chickens and liberal humanist eggs Structuralism is an intellectual movement which began in France in the 1950s and is first seen in the work of the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908–2009) and the literary critic Roland Barthes (1915–80). It is difficult to boil structuralism down to a single ‘bottom-line’ proposition, but if forced to do so I would say that its essence is the belief that things cannot be understood in isolation – they have to be seen in the context of the larger structures they are part of (hence the term ‘structuralism

in Beginning theory (fourth edition)
Peter Barry

Some theoretical differences between structuralism and post-structuralism Is post-structuralism a continuation and development of structuralism or a form of rebellion against it? In one important sense it is the latter, since a very effective way of rebelling is to accuse your predecessors of not having the courage of their convictions. Thus post-structuralists accuse structuralists of not following through the implications of the views about language on which their intellectual system is based. As we saw, one of structuralism's characteristic views is the

in Beginning theory (fourth edition)
Anastasia Marinopoulou

 5 1 2 Structuralism and poststructuralism One of the pulsions that led me to launch this study is the naively ethical feeling that we cannot let state technocrats continue like that, in a state of total civic irresponsibility, and that it would be intolerable and unconscionable for social scientists not to intervene, with all due awareness of the limitations of their discipline. If, as Bachelard says, ‘every chemist must fight the alchemist within’, every sociologist must fight the social prophet within that his public asks him to incarnate. Pierre Bourdieu and

in Critical theory and epistemology
Penny McCall Howard

18 6 Structural violence in ecological systems During the time I knew Alasdair and worked on his small fishing trawler, he told me Findus’ story again and again. The first time was after a month of patiently tolerating my questions about environmental relations and fishing practices. Alasdair gently pointed out that I  had never asked him about losing friends at sea, and then he told me about Findus and the wreck of his fishing boat, which still lay on the seafloor six miles west of the rugged coast of Skye. Almost four years later, Alasdair brought up Findus

in Environment, labour and capitalism at sea
Niilo Kauppi

2 A structural constructivist theory of politics and of European integration In this chapter, I explore in detail structural constructivism as a theory of European integration. By structural constructivism I refer to a mostly French research tradition that develops some of Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical tools (Bourdieu 1989, 14-25; Ansart 1990; Katshanov and Shmatko 1996, 90-104; Kauppi 1996, 53-68, 2000). Bourdieu's structural constructivist theory of politics offers powerful instruments for a critical analysis of political power. In European studies, the theory

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
Dana M. Williams

3 Anarchists of the world, unite! A meso-structural analysis The need for organization in social life – even the symphony between organization and society, I would be tempted to say – is so self-evident that it is mind-boggling that it could ever have been questioned. (Errico Malatesta) Anarchism in organizations Despite jokes about “organized anarchists as oxymoronic,” anarchists clearly self-organize and belong to organizations. Yet, sociological research has not comprehensively assessed the factors that influence where anarchism thrives and its particular

in Black flags and social movements
Barry Cannon

structural factors of race/class and economic relations with the core capitalist countries rather than national societal needs. An essential difficulty during the latter quarter of the twentieth century for most Latin American countries was that a substantial proportion of the earnings from exports went to pay off crippling international debts, instead of being used for reinvestment in social programmes or in the establishment of new industries. Venezuela was no exception: in 2004, it spent 6.0% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on debt servicing, whereas it only spent 2

in Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian revolution
An introduction to literary and cultural theory
Series: Beginnings
Author: Peter Barry

Theory often eclipses the text, just as the moon's shadow obscures the sun in an eclipse, so that the text loses its own voice and begins to voice theory. This book provides summaries or descriptions of a number of important theoretical essays. It commences with an account of the 'liberal humanism' against which all newer critical approaches to literature, broadly speaking, define themselves. The book suggests a useful form of intensive reading, which breaks down the reading of a difficult chapter or article into five stages, as designated by the letters 'SQRRR': Survey, Question, Read, Recall, and Review. It explains the rise of English studies by indicating what higher education was like in England until the first quarter of the nineteenth century. The book talks about the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, Roland Barthes, and Jacques Derrida. It lists some differences and distinctions between structuralism and post-structuralism under the four headings: origins, tone and style, attitude to language, and project. Providing a clear example of deconstructive practice, the book then describes three stages of the deconstructive process: the verbal, the textual, and the linguistic. It includes information on some important characteristics of literary modernism practiced by various writers, psychoanalytic criticism, feminist criticism and queer theory. The book presents an example of Marxist criticism, and discusses the overlap between cultural materialism and new historicism, specific differences between conventional close reading and stylistics and insights on narratology. It covers the story of literary theory through ten key events.

Why Building Back Better Means More than Structural Safety
Bill Flinn

funding and limited capacity, has provoked a focus on structural safety and a rebranding to Build Back Safer. The humanitarian shelter sector 1 hangs on to this notion that BBS is more appropriate than BBB. Although reference is made to the broader aspects of what might constitute a good house, structural safety remains dominant ( Philippines Shelter Cluster, 2014 ). It is argued here that this is due to a misunderstanding of what we mean by ‘better’ or good. We need to define ‘better’ better. Methodology and Sources The discussion in this paper is informed

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

, driven by the neoliberalism of the conservative counter-revolution, this social protection has largely evaporated. Insurance- and company-based social protection has historically been limited or absent in the global South. Late-modern precarity begins here first ( Munck, 2013 ). Encouraged by the imposition of structural adjustment, the South’s informal economies began to rapidly expand from the end the 1970s, absorbing the surplus population thrown off as public-sector employment and services contracted ( Cornia, 1987 ). Moving to catch up, so to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs