Structuralist chickens and liberal humanist eggs
Structuralism is an intellectual movement which began in France in the 1950s and is first seen in the work of the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908–2009) and the literary critic Roland Barthes (1915–80). It is difficult to boil structuralism down to a single ‘bottom-line’ proposition, but if forced to do so I would say that its essence is the belief that things cannot be understood in isolation – they have to be seen in the context of the larger structures they are part of (hence the term ‘structuralism
Some theoretical differences between structuralism and post-structuralism
Is post-structuralism a continuation and development of structuralism or a form of rebellion against it? In one important sense it is the latter, since a very effective way of rebelling is to accuse your predecessors of not having the courage of their convictions. Thus post-structuralists accuse structuralists of not following through the implications of the views about language on which their intellectual system is based. As we saw, one of structuralism's characteristic views is the
One of the pulsions that led me to launch this study is the naively ethical
feeling that we cannot let state technocrats continue like that, in a state
of total civic irresponsibility, and that it would be intolerable and unconscionable for social scientists not to intervene, with all due awareness
of the limitations of their discipline.
If, as Bachelard says, ‘every chemist must fight the alchemist within’,
every sociologist must fight the social prophet within that his public
asks him to incarnate.
Pierre Bourdieu and
Structural violence in ecological systems
During the time I knew Alasdair and worked on his small fishing trawler, he told
me Findus’ story again and again. The first time was after a month of patiently tolerating my questions about environmental relations and fishing practices. Alasdair
gently pointed out that I had never asked him about losing friends at sea, and
then he told me about Findus and the wreck of his fishing boat, which still lay on
the seafloor six miles west of the rugged coast of Skye. Almost four years later,
Alasdair brought up Findus
2 A structural constructivist theory of politics
and of European integration
In this chapter, I explore in detail structural constructivism as a theory of
European integration. By structural constructivism I refer to a mostly French
research tradition that develops some of Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical tools
(Bourdieu 1989, 14-25; Ansart 1990; Katshanov and Shmatko 1996, 90-104;
Kauppi 1996, 53-68, 2000). Bourdieu's structural constructivist theory of politics
offers powerful instruments for a critical analysis of political power. In European
studies, the theory
Anarchists of the world, unite!
A meso-structural analysis
The need for organization in social life – even the symphony between
organization and society, I would be tempted to say – is so self-evident
that it is mind-boggling that it could ever have been questioned. (Errico
Anarchism in organizations
Despite jokes about “organized anarchists as oxymoronic,” anarchists
clearly self-organize and belong to organizations. Yet, sociological research
has not comprehensively assessed the factors that influence where anarchism thrives and its particular
structural factors of race/class and economic relations with the core capitalist countries rather than national societal needs. An essential difficulty during the latter quarter of the twentieth century for most Latin American countries was that a substantial proportion of the earnings from exports went to pay off crippling international debts, instead of being used for reinvestment in social programmes or in the establishment of new industries. Venezuela was no exception: in 2004, it spent 6.0% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on debt servicing, whereas it only spent 2
Theory often eclipses the text, just as the moon's shadow obscures the sun in an eclipse, so that the text loses its own voice and begins to voice theory. This book provides summaries or descriptions of a number of important theoretical essays. It commences with an account of the 'liberal humanism' against which all newer critical approaches to literature, broadly speaking, define themselves. The book suggests a useful form of intensive reading, which breaks down the reading of a difficult chapter or article into five stages, as designated by the letters 'SQRRR': Survey, Question, Read, Recall, and Review. It explains the rise of English studies by indicating what higher education was like in England until the first quarter of the nineteenth century. The book talks about the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, Roland Barthes, and Jacques Derrida. It lists some differences and distinctions between structuralism and post-structuralism under the four headings: origins, tone and style, attitude to language, and project. Providing a clear example of deconstructive practice, the book then describes three stages of the deconstructive process: the verbal, the textual, and the linguistic. It includes information on some important characteristics of literary modernism practiced by various writers, psychoanalytic criticism, feminist criticism and queer theory. The book presents an example of Marxist criticism, and discusses the overlap between cultural materialism and new historicism, specific differences between conventional close reading and stylistics and insights on narratology. It covers the story of literary theory through ten key events.
Why Building Back Better Means More than Structural Safety
funding and limited capacity, has provoked a focus on structural safety and a rebranding to Build Back Safer.
The humanitarian shelter sector 1 hangs on to this notion that BBS is more appropriate than BBB. Although reference is made to the broader aspects of what might constitute a good house, structural safety remains dominant ( Philippines Shelter Cluster, 2014 ). It is argued here that this is due to a misunderstanding of what we mean by ‘better’ or good. We need to define ‘better’ better.
Methodology and Sources
The discussion in this paper is informed
by the neoliberalism of the conservative counter-revolution, this social protection has largely
evaporated. Insurance- and company-based social protection has historically been limited or absent in the
global South. Late-modern precarity begins here first ( Munck, 2013 ). Encouraged by the imposition of structural adjustment, the South’s
informal economies began to rapidly expand from the end the 1970s, absorbing the surplus
population thrown off as public-sector employment and services contracted ( Cornia, 1987 ). Moving to catch up, so to