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Peter Barry

Stylistics: a theory or a practice? Stylistics is a critical approach which uses the methods and findings of the science of linguistics in the analysis of literary texts. By ‘linguistics’ here is meant the scientific study of language and its structures, rather than the learning of individual languages. Stylistics developed in the twentieth century and its aim is to show how the technical linguistic features of a literary work, such as the grammatical structure of its sentences, contribute to its overall meanings and effects. The account given below will

in Beginning theory (fourth edition)
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A Critical Reassessment of Found Footage Horror
Xavier Aldana Reyes

The aim of this article is twofold. On the one hand, it offers a survey of found footage horror since the turn of the millennium that begins with The Blair Witch Project (1999) and ends with Devils Due (2014). It identifies notable thematic strands and common formal characteristics in order to show that there is some sense of coherence in the finished look and feel of the films generally discussed under this rubric. On the other hand, the article seeks to reassess the popular misunderstanding that found footage constitutes a distinctive subgenre by repositioning it as a framing technique with specific narrative and stylistic effects.

Gothic Studies
An introduction to literary and cultural theory
Series: Beginnings
Author: Peter Barry

Theory often eclipses the text, just as the moon's shadow obscures the sun in an eclipse, so that the text loses its own voice and begins to voice theory. This book provides summaries or descriptions of a number of important theoretical essays. It commences with an account of the 'liberal humanism' against which all newer critical approaches to literature, broadly speaking, define themselves. The book suggests a useful form of intensive reading, which breaks down the reading of a difficult chapter or article into five stages, as designated by the letters 'SQRRR': Survey, Question, Read, Recall, and Review. It explains the rise of English studies by indicating what higher education was like in England until the first quarter of the nineteenth century. The book talks about the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, Roland Barthes, and Jacques Derrida. It lists some differences and distinctions between structuralism and post-structuralism under the four headings: origins, tone and style, attitude to language, and project. Providing a clear example of deconstructive practice, the book then describes three stages of the deconstructive process: the verbal, the textual, and the linguistic. It includes information on some important characteristics of literary modernism practiced by various writers, psychoanalytic criticism, feminist criticism and queer theory. The book presents an example of Marxist criticism, and discusses the overlap between cultural materialism and new historicism, specific differences between conventional close reading and stylistics and insights on narratology. It covers the story of literary theory through ten key events.

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Dave Rolinson

them himself, by refusing narrative embellishment or inappropriate stylistics. David Leland, who acted and wrote for Clarke, argued in the 1991 documentary Director – Alan Clarke (subsequently referred to as Director) that Clarke ‘brought compassion, humour and understanding to situations where other film-makers might simply expect us to hate’ and ‘worked obsessively to find a visual style for each of his productions so as to allow the viewer unimpeded access to the heart of the material’. If Clarke’s style were an anonymous, selfless articulation of these voices, it

in Alan Clarke
Joel M. Dodson

, confession, and Donne 197 doctrinal confession –​like literary profession –​forms a ‘stylistics of existence’, rather than subjection.4 Seeing the divided body of Christ Why Foucault now? Over the past decade and a half, the various ‘turns’ to religion have marked a turn away from Foucault, and from the discourses of power and religious authority imported from his work by new historicism. Drawing upon recent historiography, this turn has highlighted several basic yet important truths:  that confessional formation was a multifarious, even haphazard affair in the early

in Forms of faith
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Lydia R. Cooper

irreducibly complex literary landscapes. McCarthy interweaves simplistic semiotics and complex stylistics to make explicit and immediate the crises facing us: the consequences of US economic imperialism; ecological disaster; and the need for a non-anthropocentric ethics of care for human and nonhuman others. From an examination of biblical versus Homeric syntactic structures in Blood Meridian in Chapter 2 to the chiastic narratological structures in Suttree in Chapter 6 , this book makes the argument that McCarthy’s prose stylistically reiterates its claims about the

in Cormac McCarthy
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Investigating British television police series
Author: Ben Lamb

You’re nicked is a genre study of police series produced by UK television from 1955 to the 2010s. It considers how the relationship among production practices, visual stylistics, and resultant ideology has evolved over the past sixty years, and how this has had an impact on changing cultural definitions of the police series genre.

To chart the development of the genre each chapter focuses on a particular decade to examine how key series represent the changes that gendered identities and social-class demographics were experiencing economically, socially, and politically in light of the disassembly of the postwar settlement. Depictions of the police station, domestic scenes of criminals, and the private lives of police officials are examined to unearth the complex ideology underpinning each series and to determine how the police series genre can be used to document socio-economic changes to British society.

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Looking to the past
Ben Lamb

This chapter explores how Waking the Dead (BBC, 2000–2011), New Tricks (BBC, 2003–2015), and Life on Mars (BBC, 2006–2007) use digital stylistics to engage with nostalgia and the iconology of sci-fi. It examines how each series provides differing views as to how technological innovations can be balanced effectively with traditional methods of detection to combat crime and maintain a stable society. The chapter then considers how each series explores the impact that the internet and associated surveillance technologies had on civilian life, given increased postmodern awareness that a person’s identity can be fragmentary, temporary, and contingent over time.

in You’re nicked
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Appropriating white male fear
Michael Goodrum and Philip Smith

Our conclusion seeks to draw together the major themes of the book, demonstrating that neither horror nor comics are intrinsically suited to the exploration of white male anxieties. The stylistics and genre-markers of the comics we have discussed can be appropriated by those they Other. Comics audiences have often been (erroneously) constructed as a space dominated by white men. This book shows that even this form of ownership is tenuous, and subject to challenges from multiple angles. The property through which fears of access are dramatized becomes in itself a space of conflict over access and reading strategies.

in Printing terror
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Transitioning from film to digital
Ben Lamb

This chapter examines Prime Suspect (ITV, 1991–2006), A Touch of Frost (ITV, 1992–2010), and Cracker (ITV, 1993–2006). Each programme utilises the visual iconography of the horror film to capture a rising dissatisfaction with the criminal justice system’s continued adoption of rational-actor policy. Then, the chapter explores how each series uses horror-film stylistics to depict perceived threats to society, including the underclass of Prime Suspect, middle-class femininity in Frost, and Cracker’s working-class ‘masculinity in crisis’. Lastly, an examination of The Cops (BBC, 1998–2001) determines how digital, handheld cameras combine docudrama’s emotional realism with the ‘horizontality’ of contemporary social realism to embody the precariousness and existentialism of Anthony Giddens’s ‘new individualism’, whilst critiquing New Labour’s adoption of ‘left realism’ criminology.

in You’re nicked