From Kant to Nietzsche
Author: Andrew Bowie

In 1796 a German politico-philosophical manifesto proclaims the 'highest act of reason' as an 'aesthetic act'. The ways in which this transformation relates to the development of some of the major directions in modern philosophy is the focus of this book. The book focuses on the main accounts of the human subject and on the conceptions of art and language which emerge within the Kantian and post-Kantian history of aesthetics. Immanuel Kant's main work on aesthetics, the 'third Critique', the Critique of Judgement, forms part of his response to unresolved questions which emerge from his Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Practical Reason. The early Romantics, who, after all, themselves established the term, can be characterized in a way which distinguishes them from later German Romanticism. The 'Oldest System Programme of German Idealism', is a manifesto for a new philosophy and exemplifies the spirit of early Idealism, not least with regard to mythology. The crucial question posed by the Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling of the System of Transcendental Idealism (STI) is how art relates to philosophy, a question which has recently reappeared in post-structuralism and in aspects of pragmatism. Despite his undoubted insights, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's insufficiency in relation to music is part of his more general problem with adequately theorising self-consciousness, and thus with his aesthetic theory. Friedrich Schleiermacher argues in the hermeneutics that interpretation of the meaning of Kunst is itself also an 'art'. The book concludes with a discussion on music, language, and Romantic thought.

Abstract only
John Corner

3 Subjectivity The idea of subjectivity, indicating the ‘space of the self’ both at conscious and unconscious levels and the various factors contributing to the self’s constitution and agency within the world, has become steadily more important in a range of social science and humanities investigations, including in areas where it has only quite recently had any significant conceptual presence. This has happened because awareness has grown of the complexity of the intersecting vectors that construct subjectivity, and the complexity, too, of its modes of

in Theorising Media
Open Access (free)
Andrew Bowie

investment in many forms of art, including, of course, avant-garde ‘anti-art’ itself. If all this seems rather confusing, now consider the following very different aspect of contemporary thought’s relationship to questions of subjectivity, of the kind which I have tried to show are inextricably linked to aesthetics. Philosophers who regard aesthetic and other culture as part of the realm of ‘folk psychology’ – by which they mean our everyday ways of thinking about ourselves and our minds that cognitive science is supposed eventually to replace with a physicalist explanatory

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
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7 Subjective identities Introduction Chapters 4–6 have shown how the young people of North African origin who participated in the field research constructed some of their experiences and practices according to individual–universalist values whereas other areas of their lives tended to be constructed with reference to a cultural or socio-economic (or spatial) community. This chapter will focus on the subjectivity of the interviewees. Do they manage to articulate contending aspects of their identity? Do they oscillate between individualist representations and more

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Sal Renshaw

9780719069604_4_004.qxd 07/01/2009 05:04PM Page 133 CHAPTER 4 Graceful subjectivities I insist on the value of movement. One never has grace, it is always given. Grace is life itself. In other words, it is an incessant need, but even if it is given, like life itself, this does not mean that it will be received. To have received grace does not mean to have it, once and for all. Adam and Eve were the only people who ‘had’ it but without knowing. And they were in Paradise at the time when there was no having. We mortals have the chance, the luck of being on

in The subject of love
Parvati Nair and Julián Daniel Gutiérrez-Albilla

Part IV Subjectivity As is well known, since the intellectual revolution in the late 1960s and early 1970s, new theoretical methodologies, mostly associated with post-structuralism, have opened up the possibility of articulating a challenge to the prevalence of humanist perspectives in Western culture. Humanist thought advocated the autonomy of a transcendental individual, namely a man, who was in control of his thought

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers
Open Access (free)
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seventeenth century when Descartes 2 Aesthetics and subjectivity makes the ‘I think’ the main point of certainty upon which philosophy can build, but Descartes still relies upon God to guarantee the connection of ourselves to the order of the universe. Towards the end of the eighteenth century Immanuel Kant aims, in the light of Descartes’s arguments about self-consciousness, to describe the shared structures of our subjective consciousness which are the ‘condition of possibility’ of objective knowledge, and he tries to do so without having recourse to a divinity who

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
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in language, or of the difference between verbal language and music. Such a theory would require a representationalist account of what each ‘really is’, and 222 Aesthetics and subjectivity this would simply repeat the problems associated with such positions in explaining why such supposed ‘entities’ as music keep changing so radically. What is needed instead is a conception which takes account of the interaction between what gets talked about as music and what gets talked about as language, these being quantities which are never wholly separable anyway. This

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Open Access (free)
The beginning of aesthetic theory and the end of art
Andrew Bowie

that makes Hegel the target of philosophers whose aim is to deconstruct such pretension, as part of the wider attempt to overcome ‘Western metaphysics’. In the preceding chapters I have tried to show that there always has been something of a ‘deconstructive’ tendency in modern philosophy, though it is generally one which seeks to elaborate new conceptions of subjectivity, not completely to obviate the role of the subject. In the present context it is important to keep the focus on the significance of aesthetics in Hegel’s work, but it will soon be obvious that, as we

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Kant
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needed God to establish the bridge back to a reliably knowable world outside self-consciousness. Kant tries to extend the certainty about the world to be derived from self-consciousness without using this theological support. How, though, can subjectivity be its own foundation? How can subjectivity itself give rise to objective certainty without relying upon the ‘dogmatic’ assumption of a pre-existing objectivity of the world of nature which the arguments of David Hume about the contingency of our knowledge of causal connections had rendered untenable for Kant? Kant

in Aesthetics and subjectivity