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a New Proof State of the Battle of the Romans and the Sabines
Lisa Pon

The John Rylands Library’s recently rediscovered Spencer Album 8050 contains a proof state of the Battle of the Romans and the Sabines, an engraving pivotal in the short-lived but ambitious collaboration between Jacopo Caraglio (1500–65) and Rosso Fiorentino (1495–1540) in Rome. This proof impression was first printed in black ink, and then densely covered with hand-drawn ink. A comparison between the new proof state and previously identified states of the engraving using a novel technical approach involving long-wave infrared light to isolate the printed lines optically indicates that the Spencer proof state precedes any other known state of the engraving. The use of penwork and printing on this early proof and subsequent proof states demonstrates how Caraglio and Rosso saw drawing and printing as intimately connected, iterative steps in the print’s production.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Buñuel’s technique
Mark Millington

cinematographic language has tended to pass almost unnoticed, except in passing references to its simplicity. And yet it seems obvious that his technical achievement is the bedrock on which his ideas and vision depend for their impact. And it is on a technical analysis of his last film that I wish now to concentrate in order to prove that point. Buñuel’s technique in Cet obscur objet du

in Spanish cinema 1973–2010
The making and unmaking of an early medieval relic
Julia M. H. Smith

evidence for one particular relic, the ‘sandals of Christ’. Full technical analysis of the construction, decoration and probable dating of the leatherwork will, in due course, elucidate many aspects of the shoes’ manufacture, and will tell a story of elite craftsmen and -women working with costly materials to produce exceptional footwear. Here, however, I  draw on textual evidence to examine their cultural construction as a relic and to suggest reasons why making a pair of shoes into a relic made sense in the 750s, but had ceased to do so by the end of the twelfth

in Religious Franks
The punk and post-punk worlds of Manchester, London, Liverpool and Sheffield, 1975–80
Author: Nick Crossley

This book argues that punk and post-punk, whatever their respective internal stylistic heterogeneity, enjoyed 'sociological reality' in Samuel Gilmore's and Howard Becker's sense. It elaborates the concept of 'music worlds', contrasting it with alternatives from the sociological literature. In particular it contrasts it with the concepts 'subculture', 'scene' and 'field'. The book then outlines a number of concepts which allow us to explore the localised process in which punk took shape in a sociologically rigorous manner. In particular it discusses the concepts of 'critical mass' and 'social networks'. The book also applies these concepts to the London punk world of 1976. It considers how talk about punk migrated from face-to-face networks to mass media networks and the effects of that shift. Continuing the discussion of punk's diffusion and growth, the book considers how punk worlds took shape in Liverpool, Manchester and Sheffield. In addition, however, the book offers a more technical analysis of the network structures of the post-punk worlds of the three cities. Furthermore, extending this analysis, and combining qualitative and quantitative forms of analysis, the book considers how activities in different local post-punk worlds were themselves linked in a network, constituting a national post-punk world.

Issues for the intelligence community
Richard Kerr, Thomas Wolfe, Rebecca Donegan, and Aris Pappas

the mark. That analysis relied heavily on old information acquired largely before late 1998 and was strongly influenced by untested, long-held assumptions. Moreover, the analytic judgments rested almost solely on technical analysis, which has a natural tendency to put bits and pieces together as evidence of coherent programs and to equate programs to capabilities. As a result the analysis, although

in Intelligence and national security policymaking on Iraq
Abstract only
Sean W. Burges

FTAA and WTO ( Gazeta Mercantil , 2003a ). On a working level, Brazil’s diplomats praised ICONE, with Itamaraty Economics Department head ambassador Valdemar Carneiro Leão telling Gazeta Mercantil ( 2003b ), ‘Icone is a very serious organization and our impression is the best possible.’ Despite this praise, the factor to keep in mind is that ICONE, as well as trade economists at peak body groups such as FIESP and CNI, were providing technical analysis of proposals and the econometric modelling to support Brazilian positions, not directly mandating negotiating

in Brazil in the world
Elke Schwarz

process. In her analysis of necessity in just war reasoning, Neta Crawford highlights precisely this point: The technical analysis is used to help decision makers stay within the law, but it may also serve to excuse decisions that we might otherwise believe were wrong and to defuse the moral responsibility for actions. The moral tension between military necessity, and discrimination and

in Death machines
Alison Mohr

–78), London: Zed Books. Geels, F. W. (2005). Technological Transitions and System Innovations: A Co-evolutionary and Socio-Technical Analysis. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Geels, F. W. (2010). Ontologies, socio-technical transitions (to sustainability), and the multi-level perspective. Research Policy, 39(4), 495–510. Geels, F. W. (2011). The multi-level perspective on sustainability transitions: Responses to seven criticisms. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 1(1), 24–40. Geels, F. W., and Raven, R. P. J. M. (2006). Non-linearity and expectations in niche

in Science and the politics of openness
National identity in The Transporter trilogy
Jennie Lewis-Vidler

. However, there are two technical and symbolic codes that will highlight why this particular trilogy adapted Jason Statham’s identity. The technical analysis will evaluate how the use of the cars and filming locations significantly supported Statham’s new transnational identity. The symbolic exploration will assess how the actor’s facial expressions, as well as how the use of the other

in Crank it up
Catherine J. Frieman

social complexity found in the Late Neolithic Balkans. Recent archaeometallurgical analysis not only supports Renfrew’s independent invention model, but also enriches it by delineating the distinguishing features of the process of smelting in southeast Europe. In a series of articles based on her doctoral research, Miljana Radivojević presents a distinct, and distinctly local, “recipe” for successful copper smelting drawn from evidence dated to fifth-millennium BCE sites of the Vinča culture and based on a technical analysis of the choice and treatment of various

in An archaeology of innovation