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Rethinking Digital Divides by Linda Leung
Antonio Díaz Andrade

she organises into three groups by the geographical regions they come from: South East Asians (from Cambodia, Burma and Thailand), Africans and the third group, comprising Iraqis, Iranians and Afghans. She discovers differences in their ability to use telecommunications technology (e.g. telephones, fax machines and mobile phones), depending on their countries of origin, suggesting that conflict, war or government surveillance hindered their abilities. Leung also observes that exposure to new

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Megan Daigle, Sarah Martin, and Henri Myrttinen

underpin increased insecurity for aid organisations are mostly seen as beyond the remit of the ‘apolitical’ provision of security for ‘apolitical’ aid actors. Aid installations’ often superior telecommunications, private transport and security practices position them as sovereign, state-like presences within host countries, further entrenching the colonial relationship between aid actors and beneficiaries ( Edkins, 2003 ). Alongside the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From competition to the foundational economy

For thirty years, the British economy has repeated the same old experiment of subjecting everything to competition and market because that is what works in the imagination of central government. This book demonstrates the repeated failure of the 30 year policy experiments by examining three sectors: broadband, food supply and retail banking. It argues against naïve metaphors of national disease, highlights the imaginary (or cosmology) that frames those metaphors, and draws out the implications of the experiment. Discussing the role of the experiments in post-1945 Britain, the book's overview on telecommunications, supermarkets and retail banking, reveals the limits of treatment by competition. Privatisation of fixed line telecoms in the UK delivered a system in which the private and public interests are only partially aligned in relation to provision of broadband. Individual supermarket chains may struggle but the four big UK supermarket chains are generally presented as exemplars because they have for a generation combined adequate profits with low price, choice and quality to deliver shareholder value. The many inquiries into retail banking after the financial crisis have concluded that the sector's problem was not enough competition. In a devolved experiment, socially-licensed policies and priorities vary from place to place and context to context. However, meaningful political engagement with the specifics in the economy will need to avoid losing sight of four principles: contestation, judgement, discussion, and tinkering. While others can be blamed for the failure of the experiments, the political responsibility for the ending and starting another is collectively peoples'.

Masahiro Mogaki

privatisation of a state corporation monopoly had a significant impact on the telecommunications market. The former monopoly company (NTT)1 has remained dominant, yet this position has been challenged by emergent new entrants (new common carriers: NCCs). Regulatory functions were not assigned to a newly created independent regulator but to a government ministry, the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications (MPT), which lacked experience and expertise in implementing this new task in its early stage (Tsuchiya 2003: 77). This chapter analyses the impact of this liberalisation

in Understanding governance in contemporary Japan
Open Access (free)
Neutrality, discrimination and common carriage
Christopher T. Marsden

zombie 2 that has sprung to life recently. It is a policy of Internet 3 non-discrimination based on innovation, free speech, privacy and content provider commercial self-interest, imposed on the technocratic economic regulation of telecommunications (telco) local access networks. The regulators, telcos and governments don’t like it one bit. The laws and regulations are formally ‘Open Internet’ not

in Network neutrality
Thomas M. Hanna

experienced on both sides of the Atlantic. Telecommunications and information technology As advanced nations continue to transition in the direction of the so-called ‘knowledge’ or ‘information’ economy, telecommunications has emerged as a critical strategic sector. Specifically, the United States economy is already heavily reliant on internet and mobile phone networks, and their importance will only continue to grow. Leaving aside how crucial these networks are to virtually every other industry, it has been estimated that by 2015 the ‘internet sector’ alone accounted for

in Our common wealth
Chris A. Williams

wholly confined to political policing – it did not address the impact of technology on quotidian operational policing.7 The key process at work was the arrival of systems of telecommunications, which integrated communication and control, both 118-140 PoliceControl Chapter 5.indd 119 19/07/2013 09:23 120 Police control systems in Britain through procedures and through specialist technologies, notably that of the control room. Despite its salience in popular culture as well as in the history of organisations, the ‘control room’ has not received a great deal of

in Police control systems in Britain, 1775–1975
Under-investment and confusion marketing
Andrew Bowman, Ismail Ertürk, Julie Froud, Sukhdev Johal, and John Law

spending on share buy-­backs can earn 15% at low risk and extending fibre optic is unlikely to yield more. This seems paradoxical because the earlier history of privatised and liberalised telecoms was one of apparent success, paving the way for later privatisations of gas, water, electricity and rail. Beginning with Cable and Wireless in 1981 and ending with British Telecom in 1984, telecommunications was the first of the major monopoly utilities in the British economy to be privatised – and at the time the largest stock market flotation ever completed. Newly

in The end of the experiment?
Vivien Walsh, Carole Cohen, and Albert Richards

11 The incorporation of user needs in telecom product design Vivien Walsh, Carole Cohen and Albert Richards This chapter reports some observations of a user-oriented design project in a firm supplying telecommunications equipment. It is part of a larger project in which we also observed the design of a telecom service by a network of telecommunications service supply firms, and several projects in a consumer organisation which evaluates telecom and other electronic products and services. Our approach was to observe these projects as they were unfolding. The

in Innovation by demand
Imaginary, history and cases Introduction
Andrew Bowman, Ismail Ertürk, Julie Froud, Sukhdev Johal, and John Law

following section provides context in the form of a broader political history of the role of 30 year policy experiments in post-­1945 Britain, and shows how competition came to be the cure for British decline. The final section then shifts into political and cultural economy and engages specifics differently as it explains how our three sectoral case studies – ­telecommunications, supermarkets and retail banking – reveal the limits of treatment by competition. The extended case studies are crucial because they show how competition (as policy goal and corporate alibi

in The end of the experiment?