Few social and political phenomena have been debated as frequently or fervidly as neoliberalism and neo-jihadism. Yet, while discourse on these phenomena has been wide-ranging, they are rarely examined in relation to one another. In response, Neoliberalism and neo-jihadism examines political-economic characteristics of twentieth and early twenty-first-century neo-jihadism. Drawing on Bourdieusian and neo-Marxist ideas, it investigates how the neo-jihadist organisations, Al Qaeda and Islamic State, engage with the late modern capitalist paradigm of neoliberalism in their anti-capitalist propaganda and quasi-capitalist financial practices. An investigation of documents and discourses reveals interactions between neoliberalism and neo-jihadism characterised by surface-level contradiction, and structural connections that are dialectical and mutually reinforcing. Neoliberalism here is argued to constitute an underlying ‘status quo’, while neo-jihadism, as an evolving form of political organisation, is perpetuated as part of this situation. Representing differentiated, unique, and exclusive examples of the (r)evolutionary phenomenon of neo-jihadism, AQ and IS are demonstrated in Neoliberalism and neo-jihadism to be characteristic of the mutually constitutive nature of ‘power and resistance’. Just as resistance movements throughout modern history have ended up resembling the forms of power they sought to overthrow, so too have AQ and IS ended up resembling and reconstituting the dominant political-economic paradigm of neoliberalism they mobilised in response to.
Counter-terrorism in the European Neighbourhood
All the Med ENP Action Plans
contain measures aiming to develop counterterrorism co-operation between
the EU and its neighbours. This section analyses the four main areas of
counter-terrorism co-operation covered by the Action Plans: political
dialogue and co-operation, co-operation on combating terrorismfinancing, police
and 2016, further leaks of documents authored by Clinton revealed that repressive theocratic states in the region (including Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Kuwait) ‘exported’ extremist ideologies through terrorismfinance and educational and charitable organisations, and that state officials from these countries were lax in addressing this as a strategic priority ( WikiLeaks 2017 ). Moreover, when considered in relation to the civilisational narratives of the George W. Bush administration following 9/11, and Robert Zoellick’s pledge to ‘counter terror with trade
, Combating Terrorism: US Agencies Report Progress Countering Terrorism and Its Financing in Saudi Arabia, but Continued Focus on Counter TerrorismFinancing Efforts Needed , GAO-09-993 (Washington, DC: GAO, 2009), pp. 20, 26–32, available at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d09883.pdf (accessed 9 January 2018). See also Rob Wagner, ‘Rehabilitation and deradicalization: Saudi Arabia's counterterrorism successes and failures,’ Peace and Conflict Monitor , 1 August 2010, available at www.monitor.upeace.org/innerpg.cfm?id_article=735 (accessed 13 January 2018); Aidan Kirby Winn
1 It is part of the Spanish Counter-terrorism Strategy (EICTIR).
2 The Basque armed organisation Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA).
3 I draw on: two online events and five on-site observations (1–3 days each) 2015–2018. The seven events include public/private cooperation, universities, security agencies and/or terrorism victim organisations: (1) Guardia Civil University, July 2015 (on terrorism, radicalisation); (2) National Security University (on cyber threats and terrorismfinancing), September 2016; (3) Military/Defence University (on asymmetrical
The growth of terrorism and counterterrorism in Nigeria, 1999–2016
Jennifer Giroux and Michael Nwankpa
emergency, or (iii) create general insurrection in a state; (b) any promotion, sponsorship of, contribution to, command, aid, incitement, encouragement, attempt, threat, conspiracy, organization or procurement of any person, with the intent to commit any act referred to in paragraph (a) i, ii, and iii. 45
In other sections, particularly Article 14 (1–2), terrorismfinancing and participation in or facilitation of a terrorist attack are also criminalized.
This conceptualization is not only incredibly broad but also influenced by the international
–to the financial authorities, regardless of monetary value 2
Penalties for failure to report suspicious transactions include business suspension and license revocation; staff members involved in terrorismfinancing activities will have their professional licenses revoked and be barred from working in the industry
Law on the People's Armed Police Force (PAPF) of the PRC (Presidential Order No. 17)
Originally proposed in 1995; draft law submitted for first reading in April 2009
of this is often unrecognised and under-reported in terrorismfinancing scholarship (see, for instance, Solomon and Jones 2015 ).
These characteristics of IS’s activity indicate the organisation’s observance of a neoliberal doxa in the region, whereby such methods and modes of economic managerialism were accepted as both ‘inevitable’ and ‘self-evident’ ( Bourdieu 1998a , 1998b ). To the extent to which this is a fair assessment of capitalist state-like entities including IS, it reflects Bourdieu’s assessment that the ‘desocialised and dehistoricised “theory
sound 6 Negotiation
Successes in counter-terrorismfinancing
However, while the chapter
predominantly focused on the Commissions successes in pillar three of
counter-terrorism, it is important to note its successes also in pillar
one. The Commission clearly also played the significant role of an SPE
in the first-pillar area of
operations – the Iraq–Syria context. This contribution has been threefold:
Reducing transnational flows of jihadist fighters and money to fund militant/terrorist activity in Syria and Iraq. This has included Russia's support of the adoption and implementation of the UN Security Council (UNSC) 2014 resolution (2178) on foreign militants and terrorist threats to international peace and security, and Russia's role in initiating UNSC Resolution 2199 on preventing terrorismfinancing from illegal oil trade in the region, unanimously adopted by the Council in