Scott N. Romaniuk, Emeka Thaddues Njoku, and Arundhati Bhattacharyya
terrorism-financing measures on CSOs in Bangladesh with a look at
the reach of the government’s CTMs into other facets of
Bangladeshi society that is critical for the upholding of democracy.
We show that competing discourses of CTM-implementation and
achievement are put forward by both the government and CSOs with
different operational foci. As the space in which civil society
Few social and political phenomena have been debated as frequently or fervidly as neoliberalism and neo-jihadism. Yet, while discourse on these phenomena has been wide-ranging, they are rarely examined in relation to one another. In response, Neoliberalism and neo-jihadism examines political-economic characteristics of twentieth and early twenty-first-century neo-jihadism. Drawing on Bourdieusian and neo-Marxist ideas, it investigates how the neo-jihadist organisations, Al Qaeda and Islamic State, engage with the late modern capitalist paradigm of neoliberalism in their anti-capitalist propaganda and quasi-capitalist financial practices. An investigation of documents and discourses reveals interactions between neoliberalism and neo-jihadism characterised by surface-level contradiction, and structural connections that are dialectical and mutually reinforcing. Neoliberalism here is argued to constitute an underlying ‘status quo’, while neo-jihadism, as an evolving form of political organisation, is perpetuated as part of this situation. Representing differentiated, unique, and exclusive examples of the (r)evolutionary phenomenon of neo-jihadism, AQ and IS are demonstrated in Neoliberalism and neo-jihadism to be characteristic of the mutually constitutive nature of ‘power and resistance’. Just as resistance movements throughout modern history have ended up resembling the forms of power they sought to overthrow, so too have AQ and IS ended up resembling and reconstituting the dominant political-economic paradigm of neoliberalism they mobilised in response to.
Despite being a principal actor in the “Global War on Terror” (GWOT) since 2001, Pakistan has lagged behind in drafting adequate counter-terrorism (CT) and security policies. The first framework for internal security was the National Internal Security Policy, drafted only in 2014. Following the attack on the Army Public School in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in December 2014, Pakistan devised its first official CT policy, the National Action Plan (NAP). The NAP has been criticized for being militaristic in nature, broad in its scope but limited in ideology and objectives, and selective in its implementation. In recent years, Pakistan has also drafted or amended a number of additional legal frameworks addressing terrorism which include the AntiMoney Laundering Act of 2010 for terrorism financing, Pakistan Electronic Crimes Act of 2010 for cyber-terrorism, and the Anti-Terrorism Act of 1997 (including later amendments) and the Protection of Pakistan Ordinance of 2014 for a broad range of offenses. Overall, Pakistan’s CT infrastructure has been the subject of much debate, criticized for being indiscriminate, militarized, and providing sweeping powers to institutions of the state. This chapter takes a critical approach to Pakistan’s CT frameworks and delves into the implications these have on civil society, infringing upon human rights and limiting space for dissent, expression, and activism. In addition, it analyzes their impact on the financing of non-governmental organizations and the workings of international organizations within the country.
Counter-terrorism in the European Neighbourhood
All the Med ENP Action Plans
contain measures aiming to develop counterterrorism co-operation between
the EU and its neighbours. This section analyses the four main areas of
counter-terrorism co-operation covered by the Action Plans: political
dialogue and co-operation, co-operation on combating terrorismfinancing, police
and 2016, further leaks of documents authored by Clinton revealed that repressive theocratic states in the region (including Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Kuwait) ‘exported’ extremist ideologies through terrorismfinance and educational and charitable organisations, and that state officials from these countries were lax in addressing this as a strategic priority ( WikiLeaks 2017 ). Moreover, when considered in relation to the civilisational narratives of the George W. Bush administration following 9/11, and Robert Zoellick’s pledge to ‘counter terror with trade
, Combating Terrorism: US Agencies Report Progress Countering Terrorism and Its Financing in Saudi Arabia, but Continued Focus on Counter TerrorismFinancing Efforts Needed , GAO-09-993 (Washington, DC: GAO, 2009), pp. 20, 26–32, available at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d09883.pdf (accessed 9 January 2018). See also Rob Wagner, ‘Rehabilitation and deradicalization: Saudi Arabia's counterterrorism successes and failures,’ Peace and Conflict Monitor , 1 August 2010, available at www.monitor.upeace.org/innerpg.cfm?id_article=735 (accessed 13 January 2018); Aidan Kirby Winn
(GIABA) – an institution established to combat money
laundering and terrorismfinancing (Akanji, 2019 ). Under the umbrella of ECOWAS, the African Union, and
the UN, Nigeria ratified a number of sub-regional, regional, and
international instruments on terrorism, such as the UN Conventions
on Terrorism, and those ancillary to terrorism, including the
December 2000 UN
The impact of counter-terrorism policy on civil society in the EU
Scott N. Romaniuk, Ákos Baumgartner, and Glen M. E. Duerr
EU formed an Action
Plan for combating terrorism. Various actors within the EU realized
that money is central to the success of terrorist acts and effective
counter-terrorism strategies premised on the obstruction of the flow
of illicit transfers of funds for terrorist groups (Wesseling, 2013 ). This influenced the expansion of
counter-terrorismfinancing strategies in 2004 and 2005. For
The impact of security policy on civil society in the United States
William A. Taylor
Hughes , J.
( 2002 , March 27).
“ War against terror needs
more than guns ,” Christian Science Monitor , 21 .
Kovach , G. C. ( 2008 , November 25). “ U.S. wins convictions in retrial of
terrorism-financing case ,” New York Times , A16