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Post-9/11 progress and challenges

"This book examines the intersection between national and international counter-terrorism policies and civil society in numerous national and regional contexts. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) against the United States led to new waves of scholarship on the proliferation of terrorism and efforts to combat international terrorist groups, organizations, and networks. Civil society organizsations have been accused of serving as ideological grounds for the recruitment of potential terrorists and a channel for terrorist financing. Consequently, states around the world established new ranges of counter-terrorism measures that target the operations of cCivil society organizsations exclusively.

Security practices by states have become a common trend and have assisted in the establishment of a “‘best practices”’ among non-liberal democratic or authoritarian states, and are deeply entrenched in their security infrastructures. In developing or newly democratized states (those still deemed democratically weak or fragile), these exceptional securities measures are used as a cover for repressing opposition groups considered by these states as threats to their national security and political power apparatuses.

This book serves as a critical discussion accounting for the experiences of civil society in the enforcement of global security measures by governments in the America’s, Africa, Asia-Pacific, Central Asia, Europe (Western, Central, and Eastern), and the Middle East.

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The impact of security policy on civil society in the United States
William A. Taylor

measures prior to 9/11, such as the 1996 Anti-terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act, although these directives paled in comparison to what would follow. A tidal wave of major security policies in the United States followed 9/11 in short order. On September 24, 2001, US President George W. Bush implemented an executive order on terrorist financing. In the Rose Garden outside the

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
Christian Kaunert

hardest case for the Commission, or any EU institution, to demonstrate its potential to act as a supranational policy entrepreneur. Nonetheless, it is precisely the area where the EU advanced most significantly after 9/11 with the agreement of the definition on terrorism and the European Arrest Warrant (EAW), as well as counter-terrorist financing, which will be analysed in more detail below. What has

in European internal security
Christian Kaunert

contributing to the support for and recruitment into terrorism’. Accordingly, the European Council held in June 2004 included the combating of terrorist financing among the four priority areas of action. The subsequent revised Counter-terrorism Action Plan set out new proposals for tackling terrorist funding more effectively and called for the quick development of an EU ad hoc strategy (European Council, 2004a

in European internal security
Brazilian approaches to terrorism and counterterrorism in the post-9/11 era
Jorge M. Lasmar

potentially negative consequences. This is clearly observable in the case of laws related to countering terrorist financing. In 2005 Brazil ratified the UN Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism. This treaty, together with resolutions 1373 (2001) and 1267 (1999) of the Security Council and combined with the requirement for mutual legal assistance in cases of terrorist financing that is stipulated in several other treaties to which Brazil is party, creates the obligation to criminalize various aspects of terrorist financing. However, Brazil has not

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Meeting the challenge of internal security
Emil Kirchner and James Sperling

crime The 2005 draft directive on money laundering qualified the sovereignty principle. First, the directive established as a principle that all member states would prohibit ‘money laundering and terrorist financing’. 47 The directive also applied the principle of due diligence to individuals and financial intermediaries. Due diligence squarely placed the burden of conforming with EU law on financial

in EU security governance
Implications for human security, civil society, and charities
Kawser Ahmed and Scott N. Romaniuk

rights and freedoms; the danger of information sharing between Canada and other countries; absence of a robust oversight mechanism to avoid abuse of power; amendment of the Non-Disclosure of Information – Canada Evidence Act, section 38.04 to allow open proceedings; Terrorist Financing Offences relating to terrorist financing (Criminal Code sections 83.02, 83.03 and 83.04) were

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
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Global security architectures and civil society since 9/ 11
Scott N. Romaniuk and Emeka Thaddues Njoku

We can address directly three of the most dangerous sources of terrorist finance, the abuse of charities, the abuse of money service businesses and the abuse of financial transactions. We know that many charities and donors have been and are being exploited by terrorists

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
The impact of counter-terrorism policy on civil society in the EU
Scott N. Romaniuk, Ákos Baumgartner, and Glen M. E. Duerr

Terrorism and subsequent strategies established in 2004 and 2005 aimed at providing a platform for effective collective efforts in addressing the rise of terrorism. Political actors and experts within and outside the EU realized that to efficiently curb terrorist attacks one has to follow the money. In other words, combating terrorist financing was seen as central to effectively defeat

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.