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Regions and higher education in difficult times

The concept of the learning region is central to the way of problem-solving. Like 'lifelong learning' the term is used variously and carelessly. This book explores the meaning and importance of the learning region. Not all universities warm to such local-regional engagement. The unwise pride of global forces and nations undermines it; but even the most prestigious and 'global' university has a local footprint and ever-watchful neighbours. The book arises from the work of PASCAL, an international non-governmental network Observatory. Its name exploits echoes of philosophical depth as well as technical modernity of language, taking the concepts of Place, Social Capital and Learning together with the vital connecting conjunctions of And, to define its mission. At the heart of the story is PASCAL's experience of working with multiple regions and their universities on their experience with engagement. The book examines in turn several central strands mainly of policy but also of process that are illuminated by the PASCAL Universities and Regional Engagement (PURE) project. The PURE processes and outcomes, despite limitations and severe disruption by forces located outside the region and often too the nation, show the potential gain from international networking and shared activities. The book also discusses internal arrangements within the administration before turning to external relations: both with the university and tertiary sector and with other stakeholders in the private and third sectors. Regional innovation systems require entrepreneurialism inside government, higher education and training, as well as within industry from small and medium enterprises to multinationals.

Chris Duke, Michael Osborne, and Bruce Wilson

13 Engaging horizontally – leading, partnering, learning H ow can regional administrations make engagement with others in their regions more productive and effective? Having discussed in Chapter 12 the impact of national governments on engagement between HEIs and their regions previously, this chapter focuses on regions before turning to individual universities and the HE sector locally. So far as regions are concerned, we discuss internal arrangements within the administration before turning to external relations: both with the university and tertiary sector

in A new imperative
Enrico Pugliese

work, but organises it using labour purchased on the international labour market or in part through pensions and various types of subsidies: a very interesting aspect of the Mediterranean welfare mix. The concentration of immigrants in the tertiary sector is a common pattern of international migrations today. But their presence on a mass scale (particularly in domestic work but also, and above all, in care for the elderly and personal services of various kinds) is especially a characteristic of the Mediterranean. This means that the immigrant workforce in the

in Western capitalism in transition
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Defender of the traditional university
Philip G. Altbach

mistake; many of the countries in question are now challenged to enter the global knowledge economy of the twenty-first century, given the relatively limited scale of investment in their tertiary sectors. Conclusion Edward Shils held to his convictions during a period of dramatic change in higher education globally – the era of massification, the unprecedented turmoil of the 1960s, and the beginning of the era of the global knowledge economy. He wrote frequently about autonomy, academic freedom, accountability, the responsibility of faculty and students, the importance

in The calling of social thought
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Shifting the economic development agenda
Jon Stobart

tertiary sector is seen in the specialised and dynamic nature of urban service activities. They often formed important links with economic changes on the national or international stage or constituted the essential character of the urban economy, either in terms of long-distance trade or leisure activities. Service functions were also central to the integration of the regional economy. As such, the spatial and hierarchical structure of service provision (and the urban system more generally) was crucial in shaping the regional space economy. Liverpool, Manchester and

in The first industrial region
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The Japanese community of Korea, 1876-1945
Alain Delissen

cent in the primary and 10 per cent in the secondary sectors, the occupational structure of Japanese residents was characterised by a 70 per cent presence in the tertiary sector. Close to 56 per cent of those jobs were in commerce, 18 per cent in public administration and 3 per cent in the professions. 21 To a greater or lesser degree, the peninsula became the kingdom of Japanese small business and petty capitalism. This is certainly most unusual for the formal colonial world. So much so that geographer Lautensach, imbued with

in New frontiers
Lea Bou Khater

the GCWL. The Syrian presence in Lebanon and its interference in Lebanese internal politics also played a significant role in reducing the influence and power of the labour movement. Furthermore, the prevalence of the tertiary sector, the small size of the majority of private-sector enterprises and the high levels of informality, together with low levels of industrialisation, spelled a structurally weak position of workers. In brief, capital enjoys the rents and benefits while labour is co-opted through sectarian patronage

in The labour movement in Lebanon
John M. Mackenzie

official imperial propaganda and with the imperial studies movements. Historians have generally concentrated on the latter in attempting to establish the relationship between imperialism and education. 1 These pressure groups were concerned to develop imperial studies at all levels of education, but they directed their main efforts towards the tertiary sector, desiring to establish Chairs and create courses of studies in the

in Propaganda and Empire
Differential inclusion of refugees in Milan
Maurizio Artero

Located in the north-west of Italy, the municipality of Milan is Italy's economic and financial capital. This city represents an important industrial centre, which subsequently switched into a hub for the tertiary sector (Andreotti, Le Galès and Moreno-Fuentes, 2015 ). Nowadays, Milan is a global city region, at the centre of one of the most important and dynamic regions of Europe, particularly (but not exclusively) in economic terms. With its industrious province and its higher-than-average share of managers and intellectuals, Milan is a well-integrated node in the

in How the other half lives
Test Dept and the subsumption of labour
Marc James Léger

, the pauperisation of the labour market creates a crisis in production since there is also a reduced ability to consume what is produced. In order to compensate for this situation in which labour has been made redundant by innovation, capitalism looks to the growth of the tertiary sector, with new services made available in education, culture, leisure, advertising, health, administration, social welfare, security, and so on – a new ‘post-industrial’ labour market that satisfies new needs and defines workers in terms of consumer identities rather than their place in

in Vanguardia