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Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape
Author: Janice Norwood

Victorian touring actresses: Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape provides a new perspective on the on- and offstage lives of women working in nineteenth-century theatre, and affirms the central role of touring, both within the United Kingdom and in North America and Australasia. Drawing on extensive archival research, it features a cross-section of neglected performers whose dramatic specialisms range from tragedy to burlesque. Although they were employed as stars in their own time, their contribution to the industry has largely been forgotten. The book’s innovative organisation follows a natural lifecycle, enabling a detailed examination of the practical challenges and opportunities typically encountered by the actress at each stage of her working life. Individual experiences are scrutinised to highlight the career implications of strategies adopted to cope with the demands of the profession, the physical potential of the actress’s body, and the operation of gendered power on and offstage. Analysis is situated in a wide contextual framework and reveals how reception and success depended on the performer’s response to the changing political, economic, social and cultural landscape as well as to developments in professional practice and organisation. The book concludes with discussion of the legacies of the performers, linking their experiences to the present-day situation.

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Royal travel between colonies and metropoles
Robert Aldrich and Cindy McCreery

wealthy maharajas, visits to Europe were becoming as significant as the ‘Grand Tour’ of the European continent had been for the eighteenth-century British elite. 6 In European capitals, spa towns and Mediterranean resorts, royals were far from uncommon, though they travelled and were accommodated in ways to which commoners were far from accustomed. Writing the history of royal tours Royal tours of the 1800s and early 1900s, and

in Royals on tour
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A masculine legacy of taste
Emma Gleadhill

In the late seventeenth century, the Grand Tour became established as a rite of passage for noble and gentry men. Narrowly defined as a period of Continental travel undertaken by an elite young man of rank after school or university, just prior to entering adult society, the Tour was a significant marker of distinction between adolescence and adulthood in the eighteenth century. 1 The ideal Grand Tourist was expected to spend time in France to perfect his manners and conversation by socialising

in Taking travel home
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Jennifer Mori

7 The Grand Tour Tourists and the Grand Tour were an inescapable part of every diplomat’s life, particularly for those posted to France, Italy and the United Provinces. The tour, a rite of passage for the scions of the nobility and gentry, required young men to travel in particular to France and Italy to acquire the social and culture polish that would make them ‘complete gentlemen’. By 1700, the tour had established conventions, of which reliance for guidance, hospitality and support upon Britain’s embassies was one. War might divert the tour but never put a

in The culture of diplomacy
Napoléon III and Eugénie in Algeria and beyond
Robert Aldrich

– this ‘new France’, as Napoléon sometimes called Algeria; an extensive tour by the emperor and Empress Eugénie five years earlier had been abbreviated to only three days because of the grave illness of the empress’ beloved sister and the couple’s speedy return to Europe. These were the only colonial tours made by a French monarch either in the ancien régime or after the Revolution. 2 With the definitive establishment of a

in Royals on tour
Janice Norwood

4 Touring North America During the second half of the nineteenth century increasing numbers of British performers succumbed to the lure of performing abroad, particularly in the US. This was a marked change from the previous century when, as Travis Bogard explains, ‘No actor would cross the Atlantic and endure the uncertainties and hardships, the censorship, the meagre financial rewards of the eighteenth-century American theatre, if he could have survived in London, or, it must be assumed, anywhere in England’ (Bogard, 1977: 4). More recent scholarship (Anthony

in Victorian touring actresses
Janice Norwood

5 Long-distance colonial touring The challenges of touring in North America were magnified for those intrepid actresses who took their theatrical skills further afield, to Australia and the colonies. Among those doing so in the 1860s were Don and Cleveland. Don played Australia and Tasmania with her husband in 1860–62, returning for a two-year solo tour in June 1864 (this time also visiting New Zealand) prior to spending a year in the US. This second visit overlapped with Cleveland’s, who was in Australia and New Zealand for just over six years from February 1864

in Victorian touring actresses
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The embassy of Sultan Alauddin of Aceh to the Netherlands, 1601– 1603
Jean Gelman Taylor

Royal tours are staged presentations of the crowned self before random or selected spectators. Elements of a tour may include public processions, uniformed retainers, honour guards, display of flags, levees or durbahs, religious ceremonies and gifts. The royal personage may travel in open carriage or closed litter, and in audiences may be elevated on a dais on public display or concealed by a curtain. Forms of obeisance

in Royals on tour
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Exporting and narrating the female franchise
James Keating

Intercolonial and transnational suffrage networks were not only constituted through the press and the post but were built and sustained by travel. Alongside seasoned nomads like Madge Donohoe, who were fixtures at international conventions, many Australasian suffragists embarked on extended speaking tours. This chapter considers the ‘political tourism’ of three women who, in the anticipation and aftermath of colonial enfranchisement, travelled to the United States, to Great Britain, and within Australia. Between 1893 and 1903, the South Australian journalist

in Distant Sisters
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Politics, Pageantry and Colonialism

Royal tours of the 1800s and early 1900s, and since, have created much documentation, perhaps the most obvious record contained in newspapers and magazines, newsreels and then radio and television broadcasts. Tours expressed and promoted royal and imperial authority, though in some instances they revealed resistance against expansionist designs. The royal visitor was the central actor in a tour, but was surrounded by an entourage of other people and a store of paraphernalia that played essential roles. This book examines how presentation is managed when ambassadors are sent in place of the royal personage. Sultan Alauddin of Aceh mounted a royal tour by proxy in which he was embodied - and concealed - in his gifts and in the humbler persons of his placeholders. Prince Alfred Ernest Albert, Duke of Edinburgh, provided a template for later royal tours in three ways. First, he pioneered a new relationship with the Royal Navy as a training institution for British princes. Second, his lengthy visits paved the way for similarly ambitious global tours. Alfred's tours cultivated a range of trusted support staff. Imperial citizenship and even Britishness were embraced by non- English and non- British subjects of the queen. One young prince who was present in Britain at some of the most glittering events was Thakur Sahib Bhagvatsinh, a Rajput who ruled Gondal. The book also discusses Kaiser Wilhelm II's tour, King Sisowath and Emperor Khai Dinh's tour to France, the Portuguese crown prince's tour of Africa, and tours during Smuts's Raj.