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T. F. Tout
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
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Lord Leverhulme, soap and civilization
Author: Brian Lewis

This book is an unorthodox biography of William Hesketh Lever, 1st Lord Leverhulme (1851-1925), the founder of the Lever Brothers' Sunlight Soap empire. The most frequently recurring comparison during his life and at his death, however, was with Napoleon. What the author finds most fascinating about him is that he unites within one person so many intriguing developments of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The book first sketches out his life, the rise and triumph of his business, and explores his homes, his gardens and his collections. It contains essays on Lever in the context of the history of advertising, of factory paternalism, town planning, the Garden City movement and their ramifications across the twentieth century, and of colonial encounters. Lever had worked hard at opening agencies and selling his soap abroad since 1888. But if import drives proved unsatisfactory, logic dictated that soap should be manufactured and sold locally, both to reduce the price by vaulting tariff barriers on imports and to cater for idiosyncratic local tastes. As D. K. Fieldhouse points out, Lever Brothers was one of the first generation of capitalist concerns to manufacture in a number of countries. The company opened or started building factories in America, Switzerland, Canada, Australia and Germany in the late 1890s. It then spread to most western European countries and the other white settler colonies of the empire, as well as more tentatively to Asia and Africa.

Air war and urbanism in Britain, 1935–52
Author: Adam Page

Architectures of survival investigates the relationship between air war and urbanism in modern Britain and asks how the development of airpower and the targeting of cities influenced perceptions of urban spaces and visions of urban futures. The book brings together a diverse range of source materials to highlight the connections between practices of warfare and urbanism in the twentieth century. It covers the interwar period, the Second World War and the early Cold War to demonstrate how airpower created a permanent threat to cities. It considers how architects, town planners and government officials reframed bombing as an ongoing urban problem, rather than one contingent to a particular conflict, and details how the constant threat of air raids prompted planning for defence and planning for development to become increasingly entangled. The book highlights the relevance of war and the anticipation of war in modern urban history and argues that the designation of cities as targets has had long-lasting consequences. It addresses militarisation in modern Britain by investigating how air war became incorporated into civilian debates about the future of cities and infrastructure, and vulnerability to air raids was projected onto the mundane material culture of everyday urban life.

German-Jewish literaryproposals on garden cities in Eretz Israel
Ines Sonder

The garden city idea, pioneered in the late nineteenth century in Great Britain by Ebenezer Howard, was the first town planning model adopted by Zionist planners and architects for the Jewish homeland in Palestine. 1 First proposals and drafts were submitted by German-speaking Zionists in various publications, memoranda and Zionist newspapers. First clues can in fact be found

in Garden cities and colonial planning
Brian Lewis

environment was to have a powerful impact on his thinking. In 1851 Britain was still predominantly a rural country: twothirds of the population lived in the countryside or in towns of fewer than 10,000 people. By the eve of the First World War, more than three-quarters of people lived in towns of more than 10,000.3 Everything that Lever attempted to accomplish at Port Sunlight and in his town planning schemes was against the backdrop of this tremendous urban explosion. Port Sunlight was Lever’s contribution to a century-long debate about how to manage the transition to an

in ‘So clean’
Zanzibar as the garden city of tomorrow
Garth Andrew Myers and Makame Ali Muhajir

Henry Vaughan Lanchester was an important British architect of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and one of the prime movers in the professionalisation of town planning. Widely known for his work in England, Wales and India (he was the designer for Leeds University, the Cardiff Town Hall and the first formal town plan for

in Garden cities and colonial planning
James Greenhalgh

Manchester and Liverpool presented images of housing projects in different ways to invoke claims of modernity through visions of progress or stability and we can see this process at work again in post-war plans.16 Becky Conekin’s work on the 1951 Festival of Britain also demonstrates the importance of these types of representations of progress in town planning: The forward-looking representations on show in the summer of 1951 were projected as brighter, better planned, scientifically researched and more modern than the designs of the past or of the present. However, in

in Reconstructing modernity
Peter Shapely

Trench, Hilda Cashmore and Alice Crompton worked vigorously for over thirty years in collating facts, publishing graphic reports and campaigning for municipal action.29 Horsfall, for instance, was acknowledged as a national leader in the housing debate.30 He was recognised as the most prominent figure in promoting German town planning methods and it was claimed that the 1909 Town Planning Act was passed largely because of his energy and perseverance.31 Marr campaigned tirelessly for reform through both the voluntary sector and the council. Not only did he conduct

in The politics of housing
Peter Shapely

war. The government was determined to press ahead with the most radical housing reforms ever passed. The President of the Local Government Board, Christopher Addison, framed the new Housing and Town Planning Act in 1919. Central government would provide virtually all of the finance, meeting all losses over a penny rate. It aimed to build 500,000 houses in three years and would adhere to the high standards outlined in Tudor Walters’s Manual. Local authorities were instructed to assess their needs and to formulate plans for large-scale construction programmes. Addison

in The politics of housing
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Disorder and discomfort in the metropolis
Leif Jerram

just the problem of the New Town type; upon their development and action depend the future progress of the Anglo-Saxon Race’, corrupted by ‘twice-breathed air’ and ‘thirty years of school education.’7 Here he characterises urban life as ‘fretful’, echoing the nerves and anxiety discussed in Chapter 1; he attacks universal education, a central feature of the modern state’s plans to ‘improve’ its citizens. Indeed, Volker Welter shows that biological metaphors underpinned much British town planning, and Patrick Geddes, one of the most influential planning theorists, had

in Germany’s other modernity