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Connecting economies of human and monetary capital
Andrew Mackillop

The growing importance of private traders is an established feature of debates on the Company and its expansion. British, Irish and other European nationals, known as ‘free merchants’ and ‘free mariners’, operated outside the corporation and pursued a range of mercantile, shipping and financial activities. 1 This ‘country trade’ was vast in extent and seminal in its consequences. It stretched from the Gulf and Red Sea to both coasts of South Asia, South-East Asia and the coast of China. Eventually it reached Britain’s new colonies in Australia. 2 Active from

in Human capital and empire
Hao Gao

. Although, in theory, non-EIC merchants were still prohibited from trading with the Chinese, a lot of them had succeeded in approaching the Chinese market by different means. Claiming themselves to be ‘free traders’, these British men either purchased an expensive licence from the EIC to conduct the so-called ‘country trade’  1 or bypassed the Company's control by signing up with foreign companies to trade in Canton under other flags. Since, following the failure of the Amherst mission, Britain sent no more embassies to

in Creating the Opium War
Anandi Ramamurthy

ideological position on colonial policy by soap companies, but highlight the shifting attitudes to Africa by merchants and traders during this period. 9 The Berlin Conference and the white-washing of Africa In December 1884, during the period of the Berlin Conference, which ran from November 1884 to February 1885, Pears’ Soap released an advertisement in The Graphic

in Imperial persuaders
James McDermott

6 Directing heads, sole traders and the professions It is doubtful whether Tribunals in general had more difficult cases than these to deal with.1 Following the call to arms in August 1914, many businessmen responded enthusiastically, forming recruitment and drilling leagues, or joining bespoke units of like-minded men ‘in a way of business’. In Leeds alone, a 1200–strong battalion principally comprising members (of all ‘ranks’) of the business community was formed, while the four battalions of the Liverpool Pals and the eight battalions of the Manchester Pals

in British Military Service Tribunals, 1916–1918
Oonagh McDonald

1 From Cotton Trader to Investment Banker: 1844–2008 A brief history On 29 January 2008, Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc reported record revenues of nearly $60bn and record earnings of over $4bn for its fiscal year ending 30 November 2007. Just eight months later, on 15 September 2008, Lehman Brothers sought Chapter 11 protection in the largest bankruptcy ever filed. Its collapse sent shock waves around the world. Everyone remembers the name, Lehman Brothers. Many regard its collapse as the cause of 2008's financial crisis

in Lehman Brothers
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

’t expect that we are going to kill you,’ they said. ‘No, we will not kill you.’ Another man recalled: ‘I heard that they would kill people in the houses. That is what I heard. So, I went to the hospital.’ Between the evening of 14 April and the early morning of 15 April, when fighting began inside the city, hundreds of people gathered inside the facility, according to MSF local medical staff. Some staff members identified Darfuri’ – some of them traders

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Politics of ‘Proximity’ and Performing Humanitarianism in Eastern DRC
Myfanwy James

MSF employees are linked to customary structures. This was commented upon by one experienced Congolese employee, who contrasted his own modest origins: ‘No royal blood here!’ Other employees brought extensive contacts from their past experience of brokering uncertainty in the Kivus – as négociants in the mining sector ( Vogel and Musamba, 2017 ), employees in the government health structure, or long-distance drivers and traders. To take one example, Bahati joined MSF as a guard in Rutshuru. During his introductory briefing, he learnt that ‘security also meant

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

decision to close the market, the Chief highlighted the risk to his safety during the riot as an explanation for his absence from the scene. It was people like him, he noted, that traders held responsible for continued hardship despite the emergency having been declared over. Discussion Each of these events reveals the fluidity of legitimacy, the importance of negotiation and the significance of roles and decisions taken by different

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

traditional aim of development policy was to regularise informality. That is, to graduate the millions of workers, artisans, traders and enterprises that constitutes the informal sector into a rule-based economy. Such graduation, however, is no longer the aim ; even though – through data informatics – the informal sector is mapped as never before. In a post-social world, late-capitalism has no intention of again assuming responsibility for social reproduction. To the contrary, the logic of the downturn is to externalise and preserve the household

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs