Christopher Hood and David Heald define transparency as a glass-like
process allowing those outside to look in, a metaphoric and literal
‘peering through the window’ illustrated by the glass of the German
Reichstag (Heald, 2006; Hood and Heald, 2006). The concept is
synonymous with openness and is rooted in the idea of letting in light
or knowledge (Bok, 1986). Transparency over the last decade has
been entrenched within political discourse as a kind of universal good
that is both an instrumental means to a number of positive
Late eighteenth-century science aimed to render the body transparent; in contrast, gothic novels of the same period often represented the body as an untrustworthy source of information about the self. In these novels, characters may often be reduced to a bodily or facial map, which may give clues as to personal character, motivation and intention. Yet the practice of reading the body – as practiced in sciences such as physiognomy, phrenology or criminology – also comes under intense interrogation. Through disastrous mis-readings, misdiagnoses and misidentifications, gothic novelists demonstrate how conflating body and self is deeply threatening to ideas of ‘unique’ personhood.
organisation like the IS would not be prosecuted ( Dreazen and Jakes, 2015 ). Therefore, while it is advisable to discuss previous cases with discretion,
nothing justifies maintaining an information blackout, especially since secrecy
hinders improvements to kidnapping prevention and risk management. Appeal for a Minimum Level of Transparency (Rather than Complete
Transparency) Rachel Briggs, security researcher and Executive Director of Hostage US, a
safe, logoed, glitzy and smart. Besides establishment acceptance, humanitarian innovation draws positivity from its disavowal
of past failures and commitment to a future of ‘failing-forward in a spirit of
honesty’ ( HPG, 2018 : 132). Transparency
regarding current systemic ‘pathologies’ like institutionalising self-interest or
neglecting the agency of the disaster-affected ( ibid .: 22–3) is part of
the self-cleansing necessary to birth a humanitarianism 2.0. This paper, however, questions
whether humanitarian innovation can be any more effective
meaningful support to the expanding population in the Palestinian camps in Lebanon, and
all refugees – ‘established’ and ‘new’ alike – are
suffering in the process. Miscommunication and Ongoing Fears As noted above, Palestinians’ experiences of precarity must be situated in the context
of their knowledge of UNRWA’s past operational changes and also in relation to the nature
of UNRWA’s communication with its employees. UNRWA itself has previously acknowledged
that the organisation would have to explicitly ‘strengthen its commitment to
This book addresses the question of political legitimacy in the European Union from the much-neglected angle of political responsibility. It develops an original communitarian approach to legitimacy based on Alasdair MacIntyre's ethics of virtues and practices, that can be contrasted with prevalent liberal-egalitarian and neo-republican approaches. The book argues that a ‘responsibility deficit’, quite distinct from the often discussed ‘democratic deficit’, can be diagnosed in the EU. This is documented in chapters that provide in-depth analysis of accountability, transparency and the difficulties associated with identifying responsibility in European governance. Closing this gap requires going beyond institutional engineering. It calls for gradual convergence towards certain core social and political practices and for the flourishing of the virtues of political responsibility in Europe's nascent political community. Throughout the book, normative political theory is brought to bear on concrete dilemmas of institutional choice faced by the EU during the recent constitutional debates.
Why do governments pass freedom of information laws? The symbolic power and force surrounding FOI makes it appealing as an electoral promise but hard to disengage from once in power. However, behind closed doors compromises and manoeuvres ensure that bold policies are seriously weakened before they reach the statute book. The politics of freedom of information examines how Tony Blair's government proposed a radical FOI law only to back down in fear of what it would do. But FOI survived, in part due to the government's reluctance to be seen to reject a law that spoke of 'freedom', 'information' and 'rights'. After comparing the British experience with the difficult development of FOI in Australia, India and the United States – and the rather different cases of Ireland and New Zealand – the book concludes by looking at how the disruptive, dynamic and democratic effects of FOI laws continue to cause controversy once in operation.
This book examines and compares lobbying regulations currently in place around the world. This edition covers more countries than the last, compares existing regulations using different measurements, and provides insights into developing or amending lobbying laws. The book begins by introducing the concept of lobbying regulation, emphasising it is a key aspect of sunshine laws that states throughout the world are establishing. Chapters 1–3 exhaustively examine jurisdictions worldwide that adopted regulations in the 1900s, 2000s and 2010s. Chapter 4 offers novel empirical investigation by investigating if some measurements of the robustness of lobbying laws are more valid and reliable than others, closing with a revamped theoretical conceptualisation of different types of regulatory regimes. Chapter 6, based on our experience of having advised governments worldwide, has a simple, yet significant, objective: to explain to policy makers how best to make or amend a lobbying law. The Conclusion summarises our findings. This book has two key readerships. The first is academics teaching courses on lobbying and regulatory politics and those researching in the field, given that the first edition was the considered a landmark. The second is the practitioner market. This includes legislators and civil servants who relied on the first edition when developing lobbying legislation and subsequently approached the authors to advise their governments. It also includes lobbyists who relied on the first edition in order to understand the rules in place in jurisdictions that they seek to influence globally.
This book contributes to the study of science and politics by shedding light on sometimes dark, hidden or ignored aspects of openness as a core policy agenda. While opening up of science to public scrutiny and public deliberation is good in principle, various dilemmas and problems are entailed by this move, which also should be made public and be discussed more openly. Developed as a solution to perceived crises in science/society relations, openness and transparency initiatives might hide ‘monsters’ that need to be made visible and need to be examined. Chapters in this book deal with four themes: transparency in the context of science in the public sphere; responsibility in the context of in contemporary research practice and governance, both globally and locally; experts in the context of policy-making, risk assessment and the regulation of science; and faith in the context of tensions and misunderstandings between science and religion. Each section of the book contains an opening essay by experts on a particular theme (Mark Brown, Benjamin Worthy, Barbara Prainsack/Sabina Leonelli, Chris Toumey). The book closes with an epilogue by Stephen Turner and an essay by John Holmwood. At present, openness in science is more important than ever. This book should be of interest to academics and members of the public who want to know more about the challenges and opportunities of 'making science public' - the theme of a Leverhulme Trust funded research programme on which this book is based.
political judgement should always be made available, or whether there are
situations in which limitations are called for. Next, it will explore the institutional requirements that must be met if the mechanism of openness is to
be effective; reference will be made to the presumption of openness and
the establishment of exceptions, as well as to provisions for transparency.
Finally, the EU system of governance will be examined from the point of
view of openness and transparency.
Openness and political judgement
The idea that openness in governance generally