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Science and art in Antarctica
Mike Pearson

12 Treaty obligations: science and art in Antarctica Mike Pearson I have never been anywhere which is so obviously not made of words, not made out of human perceptions and understandings. It’s itself. It stands apart from human culture. It overshadows human culture and there is something transporting and rather good for us in getting to a place so different. A place which we really cannot plausibly claim is just a subdivision of our own concerns. (Spufford 2011) Antarctica It is a continent of 14 million square kilometres. It is the coldest, driest, windiest

in Extending ecocriticism
Transfrontier salt and opium, 1904–11
Emily Whewell

July 1886 relative to Burma and Thibet’ (1894), outlined the basis of Sino-British frontier relations. The amendment that followed in 1897 added further provisions for Sino-British economic relations on the frontier and the establishment of British consulates in the neighbouring Chinese province of Yunnan. The treaties provided a framework of legal relations between China and British Burma, but were far from a clear statement of legal rights. Subsequently, Chinese and British officials wrangled over the interpretation of its provisions over the next several decades

in Law across imperial borders
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Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

Introduction Treaties have become increasingly important throughout the twentieth century as a means of securing states’ commitment to legal obligations. 1 The major advantages of treaties as a source of international law are perceived to be the certainty of a written text and the comparative ease of determining the parties. The wide acceptance of the Vienna Convention on

in The boundaries of international law
Shaping custom
Kasey McCall-Smith

With the proliferation of international legal actors, each of whom has the potential to contribute to the creation of international law, it is timely to consider the influence of the United Nations human rights treaty bodies on the development of customary international law. These supervisory mechanisms warrant special attention as several of them enjoy an easily recognised status as the longest continual treaty supervisory mechanisms in the international legal system. 1 The significance of treaty bodies has, in fact, made such an impact on the international

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law
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Irish journalists and the 1920–21 peace process
Ian Kenneally

16 Truce to Treaty: Irish journalists and the 1920–21 peace process Ian Kenneally This chapter considers the role of Irish newspapers in the peace process which ended the War of Independence and led to the Anglo-Irish Treaty in December 1921.1 With the exception of Michael Hopkinson’s The Irish War of Independence very little attention has focussed upon the peace process that got underway in the summer of 1920 and continued in a haphazard manner until the signing of the Treaty.2 While there has been increasing attention on the history and political impact of

in Irish journalism before independence
Ian Bellany

6 Bargaining for test ban treaties The earliest specific international arrangement, at least indirectly, to restrict the spread of nuclear weapons is the PTBT of 1963. The treaty bans the testing of all nuclear explosive devices anywhere except underground, and only then when the radioactive debris from the explosion is contained wholly within the borders of the state responsible. The negotiation of the treaty – originally designed to be a comprehensive ban on all nuclear testing – began essentially in 1955, when the Soviets unbundled such an agreement from a

in Curbing the spread of nuclear weapons
Nigel D. White

This chapter discusses what makes the constituent treaty of the UN and similar IGOs different from other multilateral treaties and whether it is appropriate to use the term ‘constitution’ in relation to such treaties. The term ‘constitution’ should not be seen as a judgmental one. In a minimal sense, the UN Charter constitutes, or establishes, an organisation with organs possessing legal powers and members with rights and duties, justifying the use of the term ‘constitution’. Furthermore, the legitimacy and strength of constitutions varies so the UN Charter may

in The law of international organisations (third edition)
The location of Koreans and Taiwanese in the imperial order
Barbara J. Brooks

purposes. In the case of the Japanese empire, an understanding of the status of its colonial citizens under extraterritoriality in China illuminates many facets of imperialism in East Asia. This chapter focuses primarily on Japan’s imperialist advantages that resulted from the anomalous position of its colonised subjects, who, by moving a short distance into treaty port China, also moved into the lower and contradictory ranks of the Great Power colonisers. The categorisation and instrumental use of different types of colonial

in New frontiers
Jenny Benham

It has been argued by historians that even as late as the twelfth century many treaties were still oral agreements. 1 This theory has been backed up in part by the fact that no early medieval treaty survives in what can be shown to have been its original form. Despite this fact, some authorities such as Paul Kershaw and Ryan Lavelle have

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

4 The Treaty of Nice and its critics Introduction In February 2000, yet another IGC, the fourth since the entry into force of the SEA in 1987, inaugurated its workings with the explicit objective to arrive at a resolution on the so-called ‘Amsterdam leftovers’. That is to say, on those decisions that should have been decided upon during the June 1997 Amsterdam Summit, where a pronouncement had not proved possible. This was no easy task given the animosity of the deliberations during the Amsterdam process and the high stakes drawn in case of breakdown and, by

in Theory and reform in the European Union