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A voyage to a sustainable future for shipping

Almost everything you consume, from your weekly supermarket trip to the presents you order online, arrives by cargo ship. Shipping is the engine of the world economy, transporting eleven billion tonnes of goods each year. Despite the clear environmental crisis, shipping emissions have doubled since 1990 to more than one billion tonnes of CO2 – more than aviation, more than all of Germany, or even France, Britain, and Italy combined. As the shipping industry is forecast to grow threefold by 2050, full decarbonisation is urgent to limit catastrophic climate change. To understand whether there are any realistic alternatives to the polluting status quo of the container shipping industry, in 2020, Christiaan De Beukelaer spent 150 days as part of a sailing crew aboard the Avontuur, a century-old two-masted schooner fitted for cargo. This book recounts both this personal odyssey and the journey the shipping industry is embarking on to cut its carbon emissions. It shows that the Avontuur’s mission remains as crucial as ever: the shipping industry needs to cut its use of fossil fuels as soon as possible. Otherwise, we will face excessive global warming and the dire outcomes that will bring. The book explores our path to an uncertain future. It argues that shipping symbolises the kind of economy we’ve built: a gargantuan global machine that delivers the goods at an enormous environmental cost. Merely eliminating carbon emissions or improving efficiency won’t solve the underlying issue. If we can’t make shipping truly sustainable, we can’t solve the climate crisis.

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Alexander Samson

Opening with the commercial ties between England and Spain, this chapter underlines the Habsburgs’ awareness of England’s strategic importance in securing the maritime link between Spain and the Low Countries. This triangular trade was key to containing France and maintaining hegemony. Mary was seriously discussed on at least three occasions as a potential Habsburg bride. In this context, xenophobia and foreign usurpation were repeatedly invoked in the face of a likely female accession. Ultimately Mary’s rise to power was built on her riches and crucial support within the Privy Council as well as personal popularity. Witness confusion at her coronation reflected the uncertainties produced by her unprecedented status as England’s first regnant queen.

in Mary and Philip
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International terraqueous relations
Xavier Guillaume
Julia Costa López

arrival and integrated the Europeans in them (Bertrand, 2011 ). The Atlantic Ocean never forgot the triangular trade behind the Middle Passage. Yet, beyond all the sufferings, the sea nonetheless created one of the most potent counternarratives to the Western thalassodicy , that of the black Atlantic: that ‘fractal structure of transcultural, international formation’, which ‘transcend[s]‌ both the

in The Sea and International Relations
Irish and Afro-Caribbean histories in England, 1951–2000

This book is about cultures of history in post-war England. It explores the productions of segments of the past by people who were identified as, or came to understand themselves as, members of minority ethnic communities. These were first and second generation migrants with familial roots in parts of the former British Empire, specifically from the Caribbean, Africa and Ireland, who cumulatively produced a remarkable range of historical texts, performances, commemorations and representations. Recognising the social character of historical knowledge, this book aims to recover the labour of people such as Steve Brennan, Stella Dadzie, Bernadette Hyland, Valentine Jones, Dorothy Kuya, Ron Phillips, Pat Reynolds and hundreds of others. First, the nation state dominated identity constructions in the century between 1850 and 1950. Its myriad institutions, routines and symbols, simultaneously encouraged and suppressed particular social identities. The book traces the ways in which those new historical identities came to be applied in public spaces. Although 1981 is a somewhat arbitrary starting point, it does represent an important moment in British culture and society. It was not only the year of rioting in almost all the major urban centres in England, it was also the year of the publication of the Rampton report and of Labour's victory in the London council elections. These seemingly disparate events are connected by the significant consequences they would have for cultural and educational activity in migrant groups.

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Christiaan De Beukelaer

voyage. Why bother crossing the Atlantic under sail for coffee and chocolate as other people risk their lives to reach Europe? Did it make any sense to spend so much time, effort, and money on transporting a tiny amount of luxury cargo across the ocean? Did the symbolic act of sailing cargo justify the effort? We were to cross the Atlantic and bring the same goods as the colonial triangular trade had brought to Europe: coffee, chocolate, and fermented and distilled sugar cane. Had nothing changed since the Atlantic had

in Trade winds
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Imperial Inequalities
Gurminder K. Bhambra
Julia McClure

Ireland in the seventeenth century helped fund future imperial expansion and established a model of using public funds, raised through taxation, for the benefit of private interests. In particular, he sets out the ways in which Irish resources – comprising the population, produce, and land – were central to British imperial expansion and its involvement in the ‘triangular trade’. This is followed by a chapter by Madeline Woker that charts how, from the start of the twentieth century, the French Empire devolved

in Imperial Inequalities
The Bible and British Maritime Empire
Gareth Atkins

. 23 In the 1790s the ex-slaver turned clergyman John Newton glumly likened Britain to her Old Testament counterpart both in her divinely conferred advantages and in her flagrant disregard for the obligations this entailed, embodied most glaringly, Newton thought, in the triangular trade. 24 Abolition (1807) and emancipation (1833) would thus provide Victorian sermonisers with a satisfying narrative of national redemption. Typology and prophetic fulfilment were part of an apologetic edifice

in Chosen peoples
Tony Kushner

elements that stood for the shifting spaces between the fixed places that they connected.’ He adds that ‘Accordingly they need to be thought of as cultural and political units rather than abstract embodiments of the triangular trade.’104 Recently the importance of going beyond the general and the faceless has been recognised in memorialisation of slavery in Britain. Thus in Lancaster, the fourth largest British slave port, the slavery memorial includes a list of Lancaster slave ships, the number of slaves they transported and the name of their captains, thereby bringing

in The battle of Britishness
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Hao Gao

Almost a decade later, Tan Chung, a Chinese historian based in India, explored the connections between the opium traffic and British imperialism in Asia. With a strong anti-imperialist tone, Tan pointed out that the vital importance of the opium trade had been underestimated as a cause of the war by Fairbank and others, whereas the Sino-British cultural differences had been exaggerated. After a careful investigation into the triangular trade between Britain, India and China, Tan concluded that the clash of socio-economic interests around the opium traffic was the

in Creating the Opium War
Contrasting articulations with the Atlantic world
Chris Evans

, then back to the shore stations where cod by the thousand were headed, eviscerated, salted and dried. 20 By the 1680s a distinctive triangular trade, originating in Devon, was well-established. The fishing fleet would leave the South West’s ports in the spring, calling at Waterford or Dungarvan to pick up salted provisions. (Time was not wasted trying to grow or gather food in Newfoundland; the long summer days were better spent fishing.) As cheap labour as well as salt pork was available on the quaysides, the Devon

in Wales and the British overseas empire