The social transformation of the Scottish Highlands
Author: T. M. Devine

This book charts the story of the people of the Scottish Highlands from before the '45 to the great crofters' rebellion in the 1880s - a powerful story of defeat, social dissolution, emigration, rebellion and cultural revival. The conventional and familiar division of Scotland into 'Highlands' and 'Lowlands' is a comparatively recent development. Strangely, fourteenth century chroniclers who noted differences in culture, dress, speech and social behaviour between the Highlands and the Lowlands failed to comment on clanship as a distinguishing characteristic. During the Wars of Independence against England, soldiers from the Highlands fought on the Scottish side but were not given clan affiliations. The penetration of feudal structures into the Highlands blurred the distinction between clanship and social systems elsewhere in Scotland and many of the greatest clan chiefs were feudal lords as well as tribal leaders. This can be best illustrated from the history of the Lordship of the Isles. Successive heads of the MacDonald dynasty practised primogeniture, issued feudal charters to major landowners in the lordship and employed feudal rules in marital contracts. It used to be thought that Highland clanship died on Culloden Moor in 1746 and was effectively buried by the punitive legislation imposed on Gaeldom after the final defeat of the last Jacobite rebellion. It is clear that clan society was undergoing a process of gradual and protracted decline long before the '45 and that the climax to this was reached in the decades after the failure of the rebellion.

Abstract only
T. M. Devine

that clan ruling families in Gaeldom and Lowland magnates both used the system of ‘bonds of manrent’ to extend their influence and create further networks of loyalty and military solidarity. These contracts created ‘effective’ rather than real kin with each party agreeing to act together as though they indeed had family ties.6 The penetration of feudal structures into the Highlands also blurred the distinction between clanship and social systems elsewhere in Scotland and many of the greatest clan chiefs were feudal lords as well as tribal leaders. This can be best

in Clanship to crofters’ war
Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

A Maori tribal response to Te Papa: the Museum of New Zealand
Paul Tapsell and Te Arawa

shifting power contexts of nineteenth-century New Zealand, as the nations at first battled one another, before unifying forces to fight the Pakeha tide of colonisation. The 1840 Treaty of Waitangi, which I expand upon later, provided relief and protection for those nations struggling politically for access to European trade goods. Article 2 was crucial to the eventual acceptance of the treaty by all the tribal leaders of New Zealand, for that article expressed the Crown’s promise to protect the chiefly authority of all tribes in

in Rethinking settler colonialism
Abstract only
Christopher Prior

as teething troubles, rather than as an inevitable step towards the end of British rule in Africa. Firstly, in certain important political regards, the continent was felt resilient enough to remain recognisably African in the face of imperial change, such as in a continued preference for tribal leaders over educated nationalists. However, when Africans were thought susceptible to change for the worse

in Exporting empire
Abstract only
Jonathan Benthall

also accommodated pre-Islamic and non-Islamic customs such as facing the sun rather than Mecca to pray (the Asir of Saudi Arabia) or trial by ordeal (the Bugti of Baluchistan, or the Bedouin of the Sinai and Negev). Bin Laden was primarily a demented tribal leader from Yemen, refusing to renounce the code of honour and revenge that is at odds with clear religious injunctions against suicide and the

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times
Memorialising the revolt of 1916 in oral poetry
Jipar Duishembieva

, he continued, instead of giving knowledge, they gave titles and ranks (chin) to their chosen agents, and introduced the election system. This, in turn, encouraged further corruption among Kyrgyz tribal leaders: whoever was elected as volost’ leader would take bribes, and demand chygym (tribute) from the people. Thus, Taghay wrote, the Kyrgyz were deprived of their land and water, and were unable even to protest because of their ignorance. Then in 1916 the mobilisation order came from the Tsar: In his order our tsar said the following: We [the Kyrgyz] will compete

in The Central Asian Revolt of 1916
Matthieu Rey

network maintained thanks to his financial resources and revenues, and in which he secured a dominant political position. Two sorts of zâ‘im appeared during the nineteenth century: the urban leaders from the great families and the tribal leaders, both of whom became key intermediaries between the centre and the periphery. During this period, meanwhile, a strong Shia movement emerged and demanded a

in Crowns and colonies
Female werewolves in Werewolf: The Apocalypse
Jay Cate

of ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ stories is clear, as is the way the game will merge tropes from different genres and narratives of the werewolf. The first of Tony Diterlizzi’s illustrations is of an older (presumably male) figure, whose long hair – dressed with a feather – and necklaces code him as a Native American tribal leader (i). However, this is immediately contrasted with the appearance

in She-wolf
The Rif war, the Syrian rebellion, Yen Bay and the Kongo Wara
Martin Thomas

their initial attempts to ‘pacify’ Berber regions in 1913–14. Under Lyautey’s guiding hand, native affairs officers increasingly sought to conciliate tribal leaders, notably through a series of legislative decrees ( dahirs ) that privileged Berber customary law. 3 These measures drove a wedge between Berber areas and those regions of the Sultanate administered by Shari’a law as

in The French empire between the wars