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Nora Engel

Introduction Standardized drug-delivery programmes, such as tuberculosis (TB) control programmes, are often promoted as universal solutions that allow using the same training modules, delivery strategies, technologies and logistics across very different contexts. They promise (cost-)efficiency, and to reach large populations quickly, while generating comparable global data through the same reporting and recording guidelines and standards. Yet, when controlling TB and implementing such seemingly universal solutions across

in Global health and the new world order
Jean-Paul Gaudillière, Christoph Gradmann, and Andrew McDowell

where medical anthropology rather than medical history has delivered most analyses? From an opening discussion of historiographies, anthropologies and methodologies, the chapter moves on to consider two important episodes in such a history: the field trials done by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) in Tanzania in the 1980s, arguably the most important source of inspiration of DOTS, and the reconfiguration of India's National TB programme in response to DOTS in the early 1990s. Both moments serve to highlight

in Global health and the new world order
Open Access (free)
Lachlan McIver, Maria Guevara, and Gabriel Alcoba

during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of Routine Surveillance Data ’, Malaria Journal , 20 : 233 , doi: 10.1186/s12936-021-03770-7 . Hogan , A. B. et al . ( 2020 ), ‘ Potential Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: A Modelling Study ’, The Lancet

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
The Politics of Infectious Disease
Duncan McLean and Michaël Neuman

a structure, notably in England and France. Over the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries bricked-up windows became a common sight, facilitating the spread, not only of typhus, but other diseases of proximity such as tuberculosis and typhoid ( Hays, 2009 : 162–8). History is littered with such examples of infectious disease impacted by politics, often to the detriment of those most exposed. To take but a few cases, it is impossible to grasp the rationales used during the Atlantic

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Realistic Ambition?
Pierre Mendiharat, Elba Rahmouni, and Léon Salumu

about two hundred dollars per patient per year. With the arrival of two global actors with multibillion-dollar budgets, namely The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in 2002 and the United States’ PEPFAR programme 3 in 2003, the 2000s were a time of worldwide consensus on radically boosting the number of patients on treatment. At MSF, the number of HIV projects supplying drugs to initially small, and then larger, patient cohorts in Africa

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings and Lauren Harris

are not hampered. For example, tackling tuberculosis goes beyond shipping medicine – adequate water and sanitation, proper nutrition, pharmaceuticals and medical care are all required for effective response. Tackling risk perception amongst banks and suppliers is difficult, as private companies do not have incentive to increase their resource burden to better understand humanitarian exemptions. The compound nature of exemptions – for example, an American NGO may need OFAC, BIS, UN and SVP permissions – challenges the ability of humanitarian aid to be responsive

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

plans for projects in Unity state rested on the assumption of a stable environment in the years to come. In Bentiu, the capital of Unity state, MSF-H had ceased its nutritional activities in 2012–13 and invested instead in the treatment of tuberculosis and HIV patients in Bentiu State Hospital, both pathologies requiring long-term and sustained care. In Leer, where it had been independently running the town’s hospital since 2005, the organisation was planning a phased withdrawal

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

. , 2015 ). In 2015, pollution was responsible for ‘three times more deaths than from AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined and fifteen times more than from all wars and other forms of violence’ ( Landrigan et al. , 2017 : 1). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) ( Smith et al. , 2014 ) published an evidence-based health-risk and hazard-management blueprint to prepare for climate change. The burden of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Historical and anthropological approaches to a changing regime of governance

What does global health stem from, when is it born, how does it relate to the contemporary world order? This book explores the origins of global health, a new regime of health intervention in countries of the global South, born around 1990. It proposes an encompassing view of the transition from international public health to global health, bringing together historians and anthropologists to explore the relationship between knowledge, practices and policies. It aims at interrogating two gaps left by historical and anthropological studies of the governance of health outside Europe and North America. The first is a temporal gap between the historiography of international public health through the 1970s and the numerous anthropological studies of global health in the present. The second originates in problems of scale. Macro-inquiries of institutions and politics, and micro-investigations of local configurations, abound. The book relies on a stronger engagement between history and anthropology, i.e. the harnessing of concepts (circulation, scale, transnationalism) crossing both of them, and on four domains of intervention: tuberculosis, mental health, medical genetics and traditional (Asian) medicines. The volume analyses how the new modes of ‘interventions on the life of others’ recently appeared, why they blur the classical divides between North and South and how they relate to the more general neoliberal turn in politics and economy. The book is meant for academics, students and health professionals interested in new discussions about the transnational circulation of drugs, bugs, therapies, biomedical technologies and people in the context of the ‘neoliberal turn’ in development practices.

Abstract only
Nurse, writer, activist
Author: Lea M. Williams

Ellen La Motte: nurse, writer, activist, is a biography of La Motte that traces the arc of her life, from her birth in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1873 to her death in Washington, D.C. in 1961. It integrates original unexamined sources such as diaries, unpublished manuscripts, and publishing contracts along with primary sources—letters, newspaper articles, health department reports, and public records—with an examination of her prolific published writings, about topics as diverse as tuberculosis nursing, women’s suffrage, nursing during the Great War, and the opium trade. It considers of how she developed as a nurse, writer, and activist once she entered the Johns Hopkins Training School for Nurses in 1898 and grew into a potent force in the anti-tuberculosis campaign. Gaining experience speaking and writing on behalf of controversial causes, La Motte put her talents to use on behalf of the fight for the vote for women, nursing during World War I and the anti-opium campaign.