‘Minde on honour fixed’
Author: Jean R. Brink

This revisionary biographical study documents that Spenser was the protégé of a circle of churchmen who expected him to take holy orders, but between 1574, when he left Pembroke College, and 1579, when he published the Shepheardes Calender, he decided against a career in the church. At Pembroke College and in London, Spenser watched the Elizabethan establishment crack down on independent thinking. The sequestration of Edmund Grindal was a watershed event in his early life, as was his encounter with Philip Sidney, the dedicatee of to the Shepheardes Calender. Once Spenser exchanged the role of shepherd-priest for that of shepherd-poet, he understood that his role was not just to celebrate the victories of Protestant England over the Spanish empire, immortalize in verse the virtues of Gloriana’s knights, but also to ‘fashion a noble person in vertuous and gentle discipline’. The received biography of the early Spenser emphasizes Gabriel Harvey, who is reported to have been Spenser’s tutor. Brink shows that Harvey could not have been Spenser’s tutor and argues that Harvey published Familiar Letters (1580) to promote his ambition to be named University Orator at Cambridge. Brink shows that Spenser had already received preferment. His life is contextualized by comparisons with contemporaries including Philip Sidney, Lodowick Bryskett, Shakespeare, and Sir Walter Ralegh. Brink’s provocative study, based upon a critical re-evaluation of manuscript and printed sources, emphasizes Philip Sidney over Harvey and shows that Spenser’s appointment as secretary to Lord Grey was a preferment celebrated even years later by Camden.

Daniel Weinbren

been that they can be helped to construct knowledge with fellow students and tutors. Independence and collaboration were not mutually exclusive. Rather, students were emboldened to develop new relationships between the interpretation of ideas and the construction of meaning. While OU production methods may have resembled factory assembly lines, academic study itself was far from a uniform experience. The individual nature of the learning experience became more pronounced as technologies were deployed to enable the OU provision to become increasingly decentralised

in The Open University
Critical pedagogy in the community
Tom Woodin

, the Centerprise Annual Report for 1978 highlighted the desire to ‘engage with needs, demands and possibilities that were not included in the programmes of parliamentary politics or directly allied to industrial struggles’ and to ‘remain distinct … from the local state and its services’.1 In particular, relations between writers/students and organisers/tutors were questioned and debated. As such, the early Fed constitution defined community publishing in terms of producing and distributing writing in co-operative ways mainly for a working-class readership. These

in Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century
EP Thompson and Louis Althusser
Scott Hamilton

captured before he had the chance to fight, and spent more than four years in a prisoner of war camp (in The Future Lasts a Long Time he would characterise those years as the happiest of his life).7 World War Two brought Thompson and Althusser firmly into the orbits of their respective communist parties. Both men identified with the Comintern’s Popular Front policy of total support for the war. After the war, Thompson and Althusser found themselves involved in the cultural and intellectual subsections of their respective parties. Althusser had become a tutor at the Ecole

in The crisis of theory
Brenda M. King

debates. Manchester School of Art, Macclesfield School of Art and Bradford Technical College provide interesting case studies relating to the debates surrounding design theories. All three schools were concerned with silk production, all three had dynamic tutors who published seminal works on design for artisans, and all three acknowledged the influences of collections of Indian

in Silk and empire
Jean R. Brink

Most of the regents and non-regents, who had all received the M.A., acted as tutors; they assisted their undergraduate pupils in finding lodging and even sometimes lived with them. In December 1570, after Whitgift was elected Vice-Chancellor, he immediately created a crisis concerning religious toleration and faculty governance. With the support of the Masters of colleges and under the authority of new statutes, he deprived Cartwright of his Lady

in The early Spenser, 1554–80
Daniel McDowell, Alison Countess of Rosse and David Davison

during the long gap between breakfast and lunch. Breakfast for the grown-ups was at 9:00 am and dinner was early, at 6:30 pm. Perhaps this was to facilitate the telescope observers. At night, whenever possible, the children’s father donned his top hat and the buffalo-skin coat that he had been presented, and climbed up to the observing platform. He was accompanied by a resident astronomer – probably the boys’ tutor – and any other guests who were interested, as many were. Later, young Laurence would also join his father. Randal missed his two older brothers after their

in William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse
Erica Longfellow

retain a domestic chaplain. But their wealth and social position often enabled them to keep a chaplain in practice if not in name, either through control of the local beneficed clergy, as at Lamport, or through less official arrangements. Both Daniel Baxter and his immediate successor Thomas Bunning took on roles typical of a chaplain, providing spiritual advice and visiting the Isham family frequently, catechising, tutoring and representing the family on errands. Both were also financially and socially dependent on their patrons. But the Ishams also simultaneously

in Chaplains in early modern England
Abstract only
The role of meteorite iron in the development of iron-working techniques in ancient Egypt
Diane Johnson and Joyce Tyldesley

–6; Carter 1933: 89–92). The origin of the iron used in the manufacture of these artefacts, and the methods by which this iron was worked, have been much debated (Wainwright 1944: 177–8; El-Gayer 1995: 11–12). This chapter discusses an experimental approach designed to assess the role of meteorite iron in the development of Egyptian iron-working techniques. The authors, who first met as student and tutor on the University of Manchester Certificate in Egyptology programme, are delighted to have the opportunity of dedicating it to Professor Rosalie David. Pre-‘Iron Age’ iron

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Abstract only
Mark Garnett and Kevin Hickson

contributions on these subjects and also to become highly critical of the Major Government. However, Utley died in 1988, before Thatcher left office. Shirley Letwin Letwin contributed to the political thought of the Conservative Party, both as a researcher and tutor at the London School of Economics and through her involvement in the Centre for Policy Studies (CPS). Letwin’s core academic contribution was an attempt to argue that the difference between freedom on the one hand and order on the other was a false one.23 This was so since the concept of responsibility connected

in Conservative thinkers