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The influence of Thomas Kyd

Shakespeare’’s tutor: The influence of Thomas Kyd defines the early modern playwright Thomas Kyd’’s dramatic corpus and indicates where and how Kyd contributed to the development of Shakespeare’’s dramas. Scholars have yet to recognise the extent to which Kyd influenced Shakespeare, nor the full extent of his surviving dramatic corpus. This book collects and sifts a wide range of evidence in favour of an ‘‘enlarged’’ Kyd canon while introducing cutting-edge digital resources for authorship attribution purposes. Through a combination of computational and traditional literary-critical analysis, Darren Freebury-Jones makes a case for Kyd’’s authorship of six sole-authored plays: The Spanish Tragedy, Soliman and Perseda, King Leir, Arden of Faversham, Fair Em, and Cornelia. The book demonstrates the fibrous influence that Kyd exerted on Shakespeare’’s phraseology, verse style, and overall dramaturgy, and proposes that Shakespeare’’s dramatic output was, in part at least, dependent on processes of adaptation and collaboration with Kyd. A wealth of evidence indicates that Shakespeare and Kyd’’s relationship extended to revision and co-authorship in plays such as Henry VI Part One, Edward III, and the 1602 additions to The Spanish Tragedy. The book situates Kyd and Shakespeare’s plays in their original historical context: the narrow and intensely competitive as well as collaborative world of the London theatres. Dramatists such as Shakespeare were also actors, and would develop an intimate familiarity with plays in which they had performed. Ground-breaking in its implications for our understanding of Shakespeare’s dramatic development, the book aims to revolutionise our understanding of the early modern canon.

‘Minde on honour fixed’

This revisionary biographical study documents that Spenser was the protégé of a circle of churchmen who expected him to take holy orders, but between 1574, when he left Pembroke College, and 1579, when he published the Shepheardes Calender, he decided against a career in the church. At Pembroke College and in London, Spenser watched the Elizabethan establishment crack down on independent thinking. The sequestration of Edmund Grindal was a watershed event in his early life, as was his encounter with Philip Sidney, the dedicatee of to the Shepheardes Calender. Once Spenser exchanged the role of shepherd-priest for that of shepherd-poet, he understood that his role was not just to celebrate the victories of Protestant England over the Spanish empire, immortalize in verse the virtues of Gloriana’s knights, but also to ‘fashion a noble person in vertuous and gentle discipline’. The received biography of the early Spenser emphasizes Gabriel Harvey, who is reported to have been Spenser’s tutor. Brink shows that Harvey could not have been Spenser’s tutor and argues that Harvey published Familiar Letters (1580) to promote his ambition to be named University Orator at Cambridge. Brink shows that Spenser had already received preferment. His life is contextualized by comparisons with contemporaries including Philip Sidney, Lodowick Bryskett, Shakespeare, and Sir Walter Ralegh. Brink’s provocative study, based upon a critical re-evaluation of manuscript and printed sources, emphasizes Philip Sidney over Harvey and shows that Spenser’s appointment as secretary to Lord Grey was a preferment celebrated even years later by Camden.

Daniel Weinbren

been that they can be helped to construct knowledge with fellow students and tutors. Independence and collaboration were not mutually exclusive. Rather, students were emboldened to develop new relationships between the interpretation of ideas and the construction of meaning. While OU production methods may have resembled factory assembly lines, academic study itself was far from a uniform experience. The individual nature of the learning experience became more pronounced as technologies were deployed to enable the OU provision to become increasingly decentralised

in The Open University
Pascale Drouet

tutors of resilience’. 14 In The Whispering of Ghosts , Cyrulnik explains, When we have lived through an extreme situation, when we have been banished from normality, there are several possible strategies. When the upheaval has been too great, we may find it oddly comforting to simply slip toward death. But when the injury hasn’t totally destroyed us

in Shakespeare and the denial of territory
Critical pedagogy in the community
Tom Woodin

, the Centerprise Annual Report for 1978 highlighted the desire to ‘engage with needs, demands and possibilities that were not included in the programmes of parliamentary politics or directly allied to industrial struggles’ and to ‘remain distinct … from the local state and its services’.1 In particular, relations between writers/students and organisers/tutors were questioned and debated. As such, the early Fed constitution defined community publishing in terms of producing and distributing writing in co-operative ways mainly for a working-class readership. These

in Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century
EP Thompson and Louis Althusser
Scott Hamilton

captured before he had the chance to fight, and spent more than four years in a prisoner of war camp (in The Future Lasts a Long Time he would characterise those years as the happiest of his life).7 World War Two brought Thompson and Althusser firmly into the orbits of their respective communist parties. Both men identified with the Comintern’s Popular Front policy of total support for the war. After the war, Thompson and Althusser found themselves involved in the cultural and intellectual subsections of their respective parties. Althusser had become a tutor at the Ecole

in The crisis of theory
Clement Masakure

Nursing School and the Harari Hospital Nursing School pushed the Africanisation into full swing. It must be pointed out that the Africanisation process not only meant having formally trained African nurses within hospitals, it also led to the promotion of some of these African nurses to senior ranks within the Rhodesian Nursing Service. By appointing African nursing tutors and sisters into more senior positions, the government began the gradual dismantling of the industrial colour bar system that denied Africans positions of power within the Civil Service. Still, as

in African nurses and everyday work in twentieth-century Zimbabwe
Brenda M. King

debates. Manchester School of Art, Macclesfield School of Art and Bradford Technical College provide interesting case studies relating to the debates surrounding design theories. All three schools were concerned with silk production, all three had dynamic tutors who published seminal works on design for artisans, and all three acknowledged the influences of collections of Indian

in Silk and empire
Jean R. Brink

Most of the regents and non-regents, who had all received the M.A., acted as tutors; they assisted their undergraduate pupils in finding lodging and even sometimes lived with them. In December 1570, after Whitgift was elected Vice-Chancellor, he immediately created a crisis concerning religious toleration and faculty governance. With the support of the Masters of colleges and under the authority of new statutes, he deprived Cartwright of his Lady

in The early Spenser, 1554–80
Daniel McDowell
Alison Countess of Rosse
, and
David Davison

during the long gap between breakfast and lunch. Breakfast for the grown-ups was at 9:00 am and dinner was early, at 6:30 pm. Perhaps this was to facilitate the telescope observers. At night, whenever possible, the children’s father donned his top hat and the buffalo-skin coat that he had been presented, and climbed up to the observing platform. He was accompanied by a resident astronomer – probably the boys’ tutor – and any other guests who were interested, as many were. Later, young Laurence would also join his father. Randal missed his two older brothers after their

in William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse