’ type of political party and to destroy the two-partysystem.
However much new political parties express frustration with the traditional party or parliamentary system, they inevitably must find ways to work within it. The SNP may hate bobbing up and down in the chamber in order to speak, or the hours seemingly wasted standing around in Commons division lobbies, but it has come to accept that it must engage in these institutional norms in order to be an effective Commons party. Its MPs still put forward a reform
polarisation, however deep, can have an
electoral impact if it is not organised into party politics,
particularly in a largely two-partysystem such as that operating in
Westminster elections. One question we need to ask is why these
different attitudes were not visible and influential in party politics
before the 2016 Brexit referendum. Another is how they become so
influential afterwards. The answers lie
The eighteenth century was long deemed ‘the classical age of the constitution’ in Britain, with cabinet government based on a two-party system of Whigs and Tories in Parliament, and a monarchy whose powers had been emasculated by the Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689. This study furthers the work of Sir Lewis Namier, who, in 1929, argued that no such party system existed, George III was not a cypher, and that Parliament was an administration composed of factions and opposition. George III is a high-profile and well-known character in British history, whose policies have often been blamed for the loss of Britain's American colonies, around whom rages a perennial dispute over his aims: was he seeking to restore royal power or merely exercising his constitutional rights? This is a chronological survey of the first ten years of his reign through power politics and policy making.
The political likeness attained a remarkable popularity and cultural resonance
between 1830 and 1880. Portraits and political cartoons were produced commercially on an ever-increasing scale. The proliferation of likenesses was not simply
due to the exploitation of new visual technologies, but clearly answered a very
real demand. This book examines the role of political likenesses in a halfcentury that was crucial for the political modernisation of Britain, in which
the electorate gradually expanded, a two-partysystem began to take shape and
constitution . In both countries ultimate sovereignty is placed with voters.
Legislatures . Both have bicameral systems.
Executives . Both executives are answerable to their legislatures and are headed by a chief executive (Prime Minister in Britain and President in the United States).
Pressure groups . In both countries such groups seek to influence policy.
Political parties . Both have an essentially two-partysystem.
Open elections . Both use first past the post – and have similar problems with non-participation.
Bureaucracy . Bureaucracies serve government at
and anti-Treatyites could
have an open and free discussion on internal policy without jeopardising
the Treaty. The constant calls for the return to unity were in part
tactical and pro forma, but also represented a genuine disdain for the
two-partysystem as un-Irish. Sinn Féiners also perceived that
part of the colonial legacy was rule by unelected permanent officials,
and it was hoped that a Gaelic
The February 2020 general election in the Republic of Ireland sent shockwaves through the country’s political system. Sinn Féin, ahead of all other parties in terms of first preference votes, secured its place as a potential coalition partner, a role it has been playing in Northern Ireland since the start of the century. This result not only disrupted the two-party system, it also questioned a narrative that had cast Sinn Féin as an outlier in the political mainstream. However, the prospect of this all-Ireland, radical left and former Provisional IRA associate being in government raises many questions. What does the success of this all-Ireland party say about the prospect of reunification? Can a party over which the shadow of paramilitaries still lingers be fully trusted? And are the radical changes that the party advocates in areas such as housing, public health and taxation a compelling alternative? These are the questions that this book sets out to address.
This book examines the role of political likenesses in a half-century that was crucial for the political modernisation of Britain, a two-party system that began to take shape and politicians became increasingly accountable and responsive to public opinion. Political language, especially electoral rhetoric, has been accorded considerable weight by recent studies in building broad coalitions of political support in popular and electoral politics. The book studies political likenesses, the key mode of visual politics at this time, as part of a nuanced analysis of contemporary political culture and the nature of the representative system. It examines a diverse range of material including woven silk portraiture, oil paintings, numismatics and medals, banners, ceramics, statuary and memorials as well as items printed on paper or card. After an analysis of the visual culture spawned by the reform bills of 1831-1832, the book shows how Conservative and Liberal/Reformer identities were visualised through semi-official series of portrait prints. The pictorial press, photographs and portrait testimonials, statues and memorials, MPs were venerated as independent representatives and champions of particular localities, trades, interests or issues, and not party hacks. Depictions of Lord Palmerston and his rivals, including Lord John Russell and Lord Derby, in the 1850s and 1860s often underplayed in pictorial representations to emphasise physical and political vigour. The role of political portraits and cartoons in the decade after the passing of the 1867 Representation of the People Act is also discussed.
Part I. The road to
In Part I we detail how
the Liberal Democrats partially overcame the structural barriers against them along the road
to government with the Conservatives in 2010. Chapter 1 explores
how the Liberal Democrats’ political and electoral strategy worked in sync to
circumvent these structural obstacles. The first section details how the abandonment of
equidistance proved pivotal to the Liberal Democrats rise As a third party in a two-partysystem we stress how the Liberal
campaigned to leave the EU and who felt this decision was
being frustrated by ‘the elite’. In some constituencies
these challengers mattered a great deal. In the overall scheme of
things, they were embellishments and details. 3 The two-partysystem was not on the
ballot paper anywhere in 2019 but it triumphed again over challenger
parties old and new.
The two-partysystem was a key element of Britain