The first twenty years (1377-97) of Richar II's reign was characterised by war and rebellion, show trials, scandalous royalty, horrible murders, attempts to solve the Irish question and the making of England's oldest alliance. This richly-documented period offers exceptional opportunities and challenges to students, and the editor has selected material from a wide range of sources: well-known English chronicles, foreign chronicles, and legal, administrative and financial records. This book describes the complex domestic and international situation which confronted the young king, and offers guidance on the strengths and weaknesses of the reign's leading chronicles. Students of Richard II's reign are blessed with numerous written sources. This reign saw the last great flowering of medieval chronicle-writing.
German reception of French subsidies in the Thirty Years’ War
This chapter focus on the German understanding of French moneys and what this
can teach us about the Thirty Years’ War. Subsidies were primarily seen and
described as functional, as a means by which the German princes could levy
troops, manage their supply and maintenance, and employ them in the fight to
preserve princely liberties from what they saw as Habsburg tyranny. French
subsidies were also freighted with additional, and often contradictory,
meanings. On the one hand the German subsidy-recipients described French
moneys as beneficial, functional, and indeed necessary tools for the pursuit
of their political and religious goals. On the other hand, those opposed to
French involvement in the war complained that such subsidy agreements were
not helpful but foolish, and damaging to the German liberties, in that they
not only allowed a hostile foreign crown to meddle in imperial affairs but
probably concealed sinister efforts by the French to weaken, conquer, or
even dismember the empire.