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José Luís Fiori

state, which, after the Cold War, would sign up to the international institutions and regulations created following the Second World War. Indeed, this is one of the reasons that, in the 1990s, American commentators referred to the ‘end of history’, the emergence of a unipolar world, the victory of Western liberalism and the universalisation of Western values. And they were right, to the extent that the US achieved a global power without precedent in human history, accelerating the globalisation of the inter-state capitalist system and the rules and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
The Oxford Amnesty Lectures 2008
Editor: Wes Williams

This book addresses the relationship between human rights and religion. The original blurb for the Oxford Amnesty Lectures of 2008 invited speakers and audiences to ponder arguments for the God-given source of human rights. The book explains how biblical inspiration (both Old and New Testament) fuelled the anti-slavery protests and later the civil rights movement in the United States. It develops the particular relevance, for arguments over human rights within Islam, of the writings of the medieval philosopher Muhammad al-Ghazali who justified an openness towards constructive engagement with other traditions. The book shows where the philosophical worldviews that inform the religion of Islam and the rights discourse may be distant from each other. It illustrates the challenge of taking the real world of human practice seriously while avoiding simplistic arguments for pluralism or relativism. The book focuses on Simon Schama's evocation of the religious fervour which helped feed the long struggles for liberation among American slave communities. It discusses the understanding of human rights in the Roman Catholic tradition. The book also shows that the Christian experience of Pentecost and what it means to learn to speak as well as understand another's language, is a continuing resource God has given the church to sustain the ability to suffer as well as respond to those who suffer for the long haul. The book argues that moral progress consists in the universalisation of Western liberal democracy with its specific understanding of human rights.

Open Access (free)
Serbian and Croatian victim-centred propaganda and the war in Yugoslavia

Comparing and contrasting propaganda in Serbia and Croatia from 1986 to 1999, this book analyses each group's contemporary interpretations of history and current events. It offers a detailed discussion of Holocaust imagery and the history of victim-centred writing in nationalist theory, including the links between the comparative genocide debate, the so-called Holocaust industry, and Serbian and Croatian nationalism. There is a detailed analysis of Serbian and Croatian propaganda over the Internet, detailing how and why the Internet war was as important as the ground wars in Kosovo, Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina, and a theme-by-theme analysis of Serbian and Croatian propaganda, using contemporary media sources, novels, academic works and journals.

From universalisation to relativism
David Bruce MacDonald

2441Chapter2 16/10/02 8:03 am Page 39 2 Instrumentalising the Holocaust: from universalisation to relativism For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them: e.g. men becoming builders by building and lyre-players by playing the lyre; so too we become just by just acts, temperate by doing temperate acts, brave by doing brave acts. (Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics)1 Where once it was said that the life of Jews would be ‘a light unto nations’ – the bearer of universal lessons – now it is the ‘darkness unto nations’ of the death of

in Balkan holocausts?
Jean-Claude Barbier

between empirical experiences; he negotiates notions and terms between the various worlds he inhabits, one at a time. He goes from the particular to the universal, and back to specifics, after acknowledging that universalisation is sometimes impossible and sometimes at too general a level of abstraction. He proceeds in four steps in a discussion that he frames in terms of the ‘underclass negli USA e in Europa’ [underclass in the USA and Europe]. It is notable that ‘la collocazione spaziale nelle città’ did not emerge in the discussion, which is rather marked by two

in Western capitalism in transition
Abstract only
Tom Lawson

destructiveness. The persecution of the Jews was often seen only in a universal light during this period – the experience of the victims telling us about universal human reactions to trauma and degradation; the policies of the perpetrators considered in their much wider contexts, such as general population movements or in the comparative contexts of totalitarianism or colonialism. Where vigorous debates were concerned only with the Jewish victims of Nazism, they were often internal discourses concerned with Jewish behaviour. The tendency toward universalisation reflected both

in Debates on the Holocaust
Chantal Mouffe

. Habermas believes that the universalisation of liberal democracy will take place through rational argument and that it requires arguments from trans-culturally valid premises, while Rorty makes a distinction between ‘universal validity’ and ‘universal reach.’ In his view, the universalisation of liberal democracy needs to be envisaged in this second mode since it will be effected not by rational argument but by persuasion and economic progress. According to Rorty, the universal adoption of liberal democracy will occur when people have more secure living conditions and

in Religion and rights
Contingency or transcendence formula of law?
Gunther Teubner

universal reciprocity, consensus and rationality. 9 After Derrida and Luhmann, each of these needs to be replaced by different key concepts: particularistic asymmetry, ecological orientation and the non-rational other of justice. Rawls and Habermas build on the moral principle of reciprocity between human beings and on its universalisation into general, abstract norms that form the basis of a just society

in Critical theory and legal autopoiesis
Abstract only
Andreas Antoniades

to obfuscate both the conditions of existence and the conditions of change of life in the international. Indeed, to accuse a hegemon has always been an easy and convenient answer in world politics and economics. The contention here is that it is time to move beyond the idea of the hegemon in order to understand change and continuity in the international. Within this framework, decentring the hegemonic and bringing social agency and the subject back in does not manifest a fear of politics, but rather the generalisation/universalisation of politics. Such an

in Producing globalisation
Open Access (free)
Louise Amoore

, universalisation, westernisation or deterritorialisation. It is argued that the first four perspectives cannot adequately capture the nature of contemporary globalisation because they reduce it to pre-existing processes. Scholte favours ‘deterritorialisation’ as an account of globalisation that emphasises ‘far-reaching change in the nature of social space’ (2000: 46). His rejection of the first four perspectives reinforces his own Amoore_Global__01_Intro 3 6/19/02, 12:03 PM Globalisation contested 4 perspective on globalisation as the transformation of social relations and

in Globalisation contested