Can private citizens serve as self-appointed peacemakers and influence diplomatic relations between parties to a conflict? The book analyzes the international phenomenon of private peace entrepreneurs (PPEs) – private citizens with no official authority who initiate channels of communication with official representatives from the other side of a conflict in order to promote a conflict resolution process. It combines theoretical discussion with historical analysis, examining four cases from different conflicts: Norman Cousins and Suzanne Massie in the Cold War, Brendan Duddy in the Northern Ireland conflict, and Uri Avnery in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The book defines the phenomenon, examines the resources and activities of private peace entrepreneurs and their impact on the official diplomacy, and explores the conditions under which they can play an effective role in peacemaking processes.
The book highlights the ability of private individual citizens – who are not politicians, diplomats, or military leaders – to operate as influential actors in international politics in general, and in peace processes in particular. Although the history of internal and international conflicts reveals many cases of private peace entrepreneurs, some of whom played a critical role in conflict resolution efforts, the literature has yet to give this important phenomenon the attention it deserves. The book aims to fill this gap, contributing to the scholarship on conflict and peace, diplomacy, and civil society. It also makes a historiographical contribution by shedding light on figures excluded from the history textbooks, and it offers an alternative perspective to traditional narratives concerning the diplomatic history of the conflicts.
phenomenon can be identified in the literature, and this work seeks to contribute to these areas of research. The study uses relevant elements from these research fields in developing a proposed analytical framework for the PPE phenomenon, and examines differences between PPEs, on the one hand, and various terms and frameworks in the scholarship, on the other. The PPE phenomenon falls within the sphere of research on unofficial diplomacy. Various scholars in the field of diplomatic studies have identified a process that developed
mixture of encouragement, and deterrence, and decide whether to do it privately or publicly. State officials must also decide whether to pursue human rights and humanitarian diplomacy through track 1 (official) or track 2 (unofficial) diplomacy, and through multilateral fora (and deciding which one), and whether to use mediation, arbitration, or judicial remedies. Mediation is often nonbinding and usually involves finding a solution to a dispute that works for the parties rather than trying to assess who is legally right and wrong. Arbitration is
the way for the expansion, institutionalization, and growing awareness of this phenomenon in later stages. The research focuses on the lesser known and less organized and professionalized elements in the history of unofficial diplomacy. Thus it “imports” into this field a sense of the existing approaches that challenge the traditional historiographical focus on rulers and kings, seeking to expose the “unknown dimension of the past,” as Hobsbawm terms it, and to explore actors and aspects that were excluded from history books
in organising the event and was known to many of her Spanish hosts. It was a role that she happily played in the furtherance of the Republican project. Her contribution was recognised in Spain. Journalist and poet Antonio Montoro’s remarkable front page article in Libertad paid tribute to Wilkinson’s ‘intelligent gaze’ over Spanish affairs. Montoro considered her to be ‘our distinguished ambassador’.198 This is apt, indeed, because Wilkinson’s support for the Spanish Republic even extended to unofficial diplomacy, agreeing to approach French Foreign Minister Bonnet
and on the PLO. 4 In 1989 Avnery published a book on his talks with the PLO. 5 The present study aims to contribute to this body of work and to offer an in-depth analysis of Avnery's unofficial diplomacy and its implications as a case study of private peace entrepreneurship. Historical background The Israeli–Palestinian conflict emerged towards the end of the nineteenth century and, until the establishment of Israel in 1948
efforts. In some cases, the perception can be wrong, based on an incorrect impression or interpretation, and this can have important implications for the initiative. This aspect is unique to the sphere of unofficial diplomacy and it deserves special attention. The second comment concerns the fact that PPEs can obtain an important advantage of accessibility-related resources when they have contact with “unrecognized” non-state actors. These are actors with which the official state government has no direct official diplomatic communication, and refuses