It is increasingly clear that, alongside the spectacular forms of justice activism, the actually existing just city results from different everyday practices of performative politics that produce transformative trajectories and alternative realities in response to particular injustices in situated contexts. The massive diffusion of urban gardening practices (including allotments, community gardens, guerrilla gardening and the multiple, inventive forms of gardening the city) deserve special attention as experiential learning and in-becoming responses to spatial politics, able to articulate different forms of power and resistance to the current state of unequal distribution of benefits and burdens in the urban space. While advancing their socio-environmental claims, urban gardeners make evident that the physical disposition of living beings and non-living things can both determine and perpetuate injustices or create justice spaces.

In so doing, urban gardeners question the inequality-biased structuring and functioning of social formations (most notably urban deprivation, lack of public decision and engagement, and marginalisation processes); and conversely create (or allow the creation of) spaces of justice in contemporary cities.

This book presents a selection of contributions investigating the possibility and capability of urban gardeners to effectively tackle spatial injustice; and it offers the readers sound, theoretically grounded reflections on the topic. Building upon on-the-field experiences in European cities, it presents a wide range of engaged scholarly researches that investigate whether, how and to what extent urban gardening is able to contrast inequalities and disparities in living conditions.

10 The foreseen future of urban gardening Efrat Eizenberg Nature is abundant, and its positive impact on human beings is solidly established in research that covers a wide range of implications. Our health, psychological wellbeing, recovery capacities, cognitive processes, such as attention, and affectional capacities, which function to generate a sense of belonging and a sense of care and attachment, are all associated with nature (just to mention a couple of seminal works: see Hartig, 1993; Kaplan, 1995). Interestingly, most of this research relates these

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
Re-inventing open space in Greece and Switzerland

4 Temporary urban landscapes and urban gardening: re-​inventing open space in Greece and Switzerland Sofia Nikolaidou Introduction New forms of urban gardening are gaining momentum in cities, transforming the conventional use and functions of open green and public space. They often take place through the informal and temporal (re-​)use of vacant land ‘that is considered to have little market value’ (Schmelzkopf, 1995: 364), as part of greening strategies or social policy. The increased adoption of such forms within urban areas underlines discussions of changing

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice

1 Urban gardening and the quest for just uses of space in Europe Chiara Certomà, Martin Sondermann and Susan Noori Every bit of land you see around you, from the lawn across the street to the street itself to the schoolyard at the end, is used according to a decision made by someone. The decision may not have involved you at the time, but you’re involved now because it makes a difference in the kind of world you live in and react to every day. If land matters, so too do all the things that may or may not grow on it … You’re a player, which means you help

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
The case of Ortobello Urban Garden

5 Urban gardening and spatial justice from a mid-​size city perspective: the case of Ortobello Urban Garden Giuseppe Aliperti and Silvia Sarti Introduction The concept of justice is strongly related to present-​day conditions that are constantly influenced by class, race and gender, and are able to generate a locational discrimination on certain groups of the population (Soja, 2009). Starting from the 1970s, the term spatial justice has been introduced in order to describe this kind of phenomenon. Spatial justice has been initially investigated by focusing on

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
A Capability Approach based analysis from the UK and Ireland

8 Is urban gardening a source of wellbeing and just freedom? A Capability Approach based analysis from the UK and Ireland Alma Clavin The world in which we live is not only unjust, it is, arguably, extraordinarily unjust. (Sen, 2006: 237) Introduction Individuals attach different meanings, values and derive different wellbeing benefits from their environment. Alkire (2008) states that in addition to individual action, the process of improving human wellbeing often requires sustained, collective action of people. The neoliberalisation of urban governance may

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
Concepts and practice

2 Conflation in political gardening: concepts and practice Lucy Rose Wright and Ross Fraser Young Introduction This chapter introduces the re-​emerging political characteristic of urban gardening (UG) (Certomà and Tornaghi, 2015). Our contribution presents an understanding of the importance process has for a group seeking spatial justice through engagement in UG. The garden’s local political environment shapes the process by which a group seeks to tackle localised spatial injustice. Spatial justice refers to ‘an intentional and focused emphasis on the spatial

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
Securing or denying minorities’ right to the city?

is critiqued for working in favour of the rich and the powerful, while further disempowering the poor and increasingly taking away from the rights of the common citizen (see further elaboration of this point in the next section). 1 92 Urban gardening and the struggle for justice and Viehoff, 2015; Rosol, 2010). This work not only adds empirical knowledge on community gardens in new geographic settings, but also theoretically advances our understanding of multiple and multifaceted neoliberalisms (Peck and Tickell, 2002) and their diverse manifestations in

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
Abstract only
Creating places of vernacular democracy

distinguished from among hundreds of hectares of Warsaw’s wastelands by their recording in planning documents, i.e. ZP (public greenery). However, these areas have their users who treat them as their everyday landscape. Regarding Ray Oldenburg’s theory of third places (Oldenburg, 1989), wastelands are important element of the public spaces structure (Łepkowski et al., 2016). 39 40 Urban gardening and the struggle for justice Figure 3.2  Example of Warsaw’s wasteland transformations Materials and methods The first part of the research is based on the comparative

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
Abstract only
Why gardening has limited success growing inclusive communities

community-​ forming processes were limiting in terms of social inclusion, before the conclusion outlines implications for the operation of urban gardens if they are to advance urban justice. What is the relationship between community, place and gardens? The idea of community is central to the operation and analysis of urban gardens, as a product of garden practices and a mode of delivering benefits. But urban gardening literature tends to lack clarity on the nature of community, or treats it simplistically and idealistically, as a homogeneous coherent unit (Neo and Chua

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice