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Heritage and transformation in Nelson Mandela Bay
Author: Naomi Roux

The book focuses on the Nelson Mandela Bay Metro in South Africa’s Eastern Cape, using the city as a case study to read the ways in which memory is being written into South African urban space two decades after the end of apartheid. At the core of the book is the question of how history is written into public space, and how inscriptions of the past and its meanings are being challenged. This reading of public space and memory is located in a context where the promises of ‘reconciliation’ and the ‘rainbow nation’ are largely falling apart, and one in which South African cities remain in dire need of dramatic spatial and social transformation. The book is organised around four examples of memorial sites/practices, highlighting some of the ways in which public memory has been circumscribed by the state as well as the ways in which this circumscription has been contested. These include the Red Location Museum of Struggle, a highly contentious museum project; histories of forced removals in the suburb of South End; the activism and iconography of a group called the Amabutho, which was active in the city’s townships during the struggles of the 1980s; and heritage-related public art projects in the city centre. These examples collectively illuminate the spatial politics of memory in the twenty-first-century post-apartheid city, and the intersections between urban transformation and public memory.

It is increasingly clear that, alongside the spectacular forms of justice activism, the actually existing just city results from different everyday practices of performative politics that produce transformative trajectories and alternative realities in response to particular injustices in situated contexts. The massive diffusion of urban gardening practices (including allotments, community gardens, guerrilla gardening and the multiple, inventive forms of gardening the city) deserve special attention as experiential learning and in-becoming responses to spatial politics, able to articulate different forms of power and resistance to the current state of unequal distribution of benefits and burdens in the urban space. While advancing their socio-environmental claims, urban gardeners make evident that the physical disposition of living beings and non-living things can both determine and perpetuate injustices or create justice spaces.

In so doing, urban gardeners question the inequality-biased structuring and functioning of social formations (most notably urban deprivation, lack of public decision and engagement, and marginalisation processes); and conversely create (or allow the creation of) spaces of justice in contemporary cities.

This book presents a selection of contributions investigating the possibility and capability of urban gardeners to effectively tackle spatial injustice; and it offers the readers sound, theoretically grounded reflections on the topic. Building upon on-the-field experiences in European cities, it presents a wide range of engaged scholarly researches that investigate whether, how and to what extent urban gardening is able to contrast inequalities and disparities in living conditions.

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Lindsay J. Proudfoot and Dianne P. Hall

were central to the re-materialisation of this landscape and its inscription with new place meanings. As Anthony Trollope noted in 1873, even the smallest towns might possess a surprisingly wide range of functions and were thus, as Jeans observes, truly urban in character. 4 Accordingly, as Thomas Brown’s obituary and the excerpts from the Kilmore Free Press suggest, it is likely that they

in Imperial spaces
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Gervase Rosser

urban life reaching back well before 1066. As is noted in the Introduction, archaeology has recently filled out the written record of Anglo-Saxon boroughs, to show that central and southern England were significantly urbanised well before the Norman invasion. The Domesday Book is not a simple source for the historian to use [ 9 ], [ 10 ]. It was drawn up not to provide a rounded description of

in Towns in medieval England
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Gervase Rosser

market and to hold a court of justice but also for the protection of trading members of the urban community when they travelled to other towns [ 51 ]. Monarchs under financial duress were the more willing to delegate powers for a financial return; but no civic corporation under the aegis of the medieval English monarchy was allowed to forget that it exercised delegated authority on suffrance, and might at any

in Towns in medieval England
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Un prophète and Dheepan
Gemma King

5 Urban margins: Un prophète and Dheepan W e now move from the city to the banlieue for Jacques Audiard’s 2009 Un prophète and 2015 Dheepan. Each of these banlieue-set films is composed of multilingual dialogue and features characters who frequently code-switch as a strategy for dominating one another. Un prophète is set in the Brécourt male prison, ruled and divided by two conflicting cultural gangs: the Arabs and the Corsicans. The young Franco-Maghrebi protagonist, Malik, finds himself simultaneously subjugated by, and torn between, these two groups, as he

in Decentring France
A transnational perspective

This collection of essays examines the history of urban leisure cultures in Europe in the transition from the early modern to the modern period. The volume brings together research on a wide variety of leisure activities which are usually studied in isolation: from theatre and music culture, art exhibitions, spas and seaside resorts, to sports and games, walking and cafés and restaurants. The book develops a new research agenda for the history of leisure by focusing on the complex processes of cultural transfer that were fundamental in transforming urban leisure culture from the British Isles to France, Spain, Italy, Sweden, Austria and the Ottoman Empire. How did new models of organising and experiencing urban leisure pastimes ‘travel’ from one European region to another? Who were the main agents of cultural innovation and appropriation? How did entrepreneurs, citizens and urban authorities mediate and adapt foreign influences to local contexts? How did the increasingly ‘entangled’ character of European urban leisure culture impact upon the ways men and women from various classes identified with their social, cultural or (proto)national communities?

Accessible and wide-ranging, this volume offers students and scholars a broad overview of the history of urban leisure culture in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe. The agenda-setting focus on transnational cultural transfer will stimulate new questions and contribute to a more integrated study of the rise of modern urban culture.

Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city examines how urban health and wellbeing are shaped by migration, mobility, racism, sanitation and gender. Adopting a global focus, spanning Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, the essays in this volume bring together a wide selection of voices that explore the interface between social, medical and natural sciences. This interdisciplinary approach, moving beyond traditional approaches to urban research, offers a unique perspective on today’s cities and the challenges they face. Edited by Professor Michael Keith and Dr Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos, this volume also features contributions from leading thinkers on cities in Brazil, China, South Africa and the United Kingdom. This geographic diversity is matched by the breadth of their different fields, from mental health and gendered violence to sanitation and food systems. Together, they present a complex yet connected vision of a ‘new biopolitics’ in today’s metropolis, one that requires an innovative approach to urban scholarship regardless of geography or discipline. This volume, featuring chapters from a number of renowned authors including the former deputy mayor of Rio de Janeiro Luiz Eduardo Soares, is an important resource for anyone seeking to better understand the dynamics of urban change. With its focus on the everyday realities of urban living, from health services to public transport, it contains valuable lessons for academics, policy makers and practitioners alike.

Re-inventing open space in Greece and Switzerland
Sofia Nikolaidou

4 Temporary urban landscapes and urban gardening: re-​inventing open space in Greece and Switzerland Sofia Nikolaidou Introduction New forms of urban gardening are gaining momentum in cities, transforming the conventional use and functions of open green and public space. They often take place through the informal and temporal (re-​)use of vacant land ‘that is considered to have little market value’ (Schmelzkopf, 1995: 364), as part of greening strategies or social policy. The increased adoption of such forms within urban areas underlines discussions of changing

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
Małgorzata Jakimów

In November 2017, a fire claimed nineteen lives in an overcrowded building in Daxing, one of the most densely migrant-inhabited districts of Beijing. Shortly afterwards, an estimated 100,000 migrant workers labelled as ‘low-end population’ were thrown out into the bitter Beijing winter as urban villages in Daxing and other parts of the city were razed in the forty-day crackdown on ‘illegal housing’ (Phillips, 2017 ). The city authorities justified the destruction of urban villages, as in previous cases of similar removal, on the grounds of

in China’s citizenship challenge