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Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city examines how urban health and wellbeing are shaped by migration, mobility, racism, sanitation and gender. Adopting a global focus, spanning Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, the essays in this volume bring together a wide selection of voices that explore the interface between social, medical and natural sciences. This interdisciplinary approach, moving beyond traditional approaches to urban research, offers a unique perspective on today’s cities and the challenges they face. Edited by Professor Michael Keith and Dr Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos, this volume also features contributions from leading thinkers on cities in Brazil, China, South Africa and the United Kingdom. This geographic diversity is matched by the breadth of their different fields, from mental health and gendered violence to sanitation and food systems. Together, they present a complex yet connected vision of a ‘new biopolitics’ in today’s metropolis, one that requires an innovative approach to urban scholarship regardless of geography or discipline. This volume, featuring chapters from a number of renowned authors including the former deputy mayor of Rio de Janeiro Luiz Eduardo Soares, is an important resource for anyone seeking to better understand the dynamics of urban change. With its focus on the everyday realities of urban living, from health services to public transport, it contains valuable lessons for academics, policy makers and practitioners alike.

From Manchester United as a ‘global leisure brand’ to FC United as a ‘community club’
George Poulton

7 Urban transformation in football: from Manchester United as a ‘global leisure brand’ to FC United as a ‘community club’ George Poulton Introduction Since the 1970s, Manchester’s economy has undergone profound change, with the decline of heavy industry and manufacturing and the rise of the service sector and the leisure industries, as well as the inward investment of new global capital. This is part of a broader structural transformation of urban economies across England, and indeed in many cities globally, where a Keynesian system of interventionist economic

in Realising the city
Małgorzata Jakimów

This chapter focuses on migrant NGOs’ claims to the city through acts of ‘integrating into the city’ and ‘claiming the right to the city’. Urban citizenship is understood here not only as the legal right to belong to the city, but also as a process of building community within the city and participating in building the city, both materially and culturally. The chapter also analyses whether various forms of engagement and intervention within urban spaces, which take place through these acts, can challenge the powerful discourses around urbanisation, prescribed practices of passivity and the legal constructs at the heart of urban citizenship. This is observed through examples of creating spaces of belonging, defending the last house standing in a demolished urban village, or establishing schools for migrant worker children in defiance of urban development policies and the constraints of the hukou system. The chapter also takes into account the obstacles to such citizenship transformation by reflecting critically upon the structural limitations put up by the state and by capital to bar migrant workers from successfully claiming the right to the city.

in China’s citizenship challenge
Mark Pelling
Alejandro Barcena
Hayley Leck
Ibidun Adelekan
David Dodman
Hamadou Issaka
Cassidy Johnson
Mtafu Manda
Blessing Mberu
Ezebunwa Nwokocha
Emmanuel Osuteye
, and
Soumana Boubacar

Risk-sensitive urban development is required to reduce accumulated risk and to better consider risk when planning new developments. To deliver a sustainable city for all requires a more frank and comprehensive focus on procedure: on who makes decisions, under which frameworks, based upon what kind of data or knowledge, and with what degree and direction of accountability. Acting on these procedural questions is the promise of transformative urban development. This chapter explores the status of risk-sensitive and transformative urban development and the scope for transition towards these components of sustainability in urban sub-Saharan Africa through the lens of diverse city cases: Karonga (Malawi), Ibadan (Nigeria), Niamey (Niger) and Nairobi (Kenya). A common analytical framework is presented to help identify blockages and opportunities for transition towards a risk-sensitive and transformative urban development. This framework is then illustrated through each city in turn; a concluding discussion reflects on city observations to draw out recommendations for city-level and wider action and research partnerships.

in African cities and collaborative futures
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Heritage and transformation in Nelson Mandela Bay

The book focuses on the Nelson Mandela Bay Metro in South Africa’s Eastern Cape, using the city as a case study to read the ways in which memory is being written into South African urban space two decades after the end of apartheid. At the core of the book is the question of how history is written into public space, and how inscriptions of the past and its meanings are being challenged. This reading of public space and memory is located in a context where the promises of ‘reconciliation’ and the ‘rainbow nation’ are largely falling apart, and one in which South African cities remain in dire need of dramatic spatial and social transformation. The book is organised around four examples of memorial sites/practices, highlighting some of the ways in which public memory has been circumscribed by the state as well as the ways in which this circumscription has been contested. These include the Red Location Museum of Struggle, a highly contentious museum project; histories of forced removals in the suburb of South End; the activism and iconography of a group called the Amabutho, which was active in the city’s townships during the struggles of the 1980s; and heritage-related public art projects in the city centre. These examples collectively illuminate the spatial politics of memory in the twenty-first-century post-apartheid city, and the intersections between urban transformation and public memory.

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The articulated skeleton
Naomi Roux

resources; despite the optimistic and inclusive framing of the NHRA, it has proven difficult to adequately enable and make space in policy for that which cannot be seen or touched. At the same time, in the immediate aftermath of apartheid the spatial fixity of South African cities and the need to address apartheid geographies of segregation and exclusion became, and remain, major issues in political and public discourse. Heritage and urban transformation are both potential tools for redress as well as highly contested arenas of citizenship and identity; and urban space

in Remaking the urban
Open Access (free)
City DNA, public health and a new urban imaginary
Michael Keith
Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos

history of comparative studies in the social sciences, but for the purposes of this volume it is perhaps most important to emphasise how different chapters make visible similar logics in rapidly changing empirical contexts. The emergence of four decades of exponential growth in China since Deng’s ‘opening up’ qualifies any suggestion that the country’s urban transformation constitutes a form of urbanism of the global south. The ‘modernisation’ of cities in Brazil and South Africa qualifies the extent to which urban transformation can be seen straightforwardly through a

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city
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Tackling the urban through ethnography
Camilla Lewis
Jessica Symons

futures, as mobilised by institutional stakeholders, and how other actors envisage the future, highlights whose interests are currently being prioritised and whose are traded off. Engaging in an analysis of these urban futures reveals not only important tensions connected to future developments and imagined uses of the city centre, but also opens up to scrutiny the present experiences and uses of the city centre and competing interests. Part III, ‘Realising urban communities’, explores how people’s lives interact with the dynamics of urban transformation and development

in Realising the city
Pedro Ramos Pinto

of regime would be able to deliver on the new social contract. With a strictly policed public space, high levels of illiteracy and a deeply felt isolation from the rest of the world, Portuguese civil society was shaped determinately by its interaction with Salazar’s New State. In the following sections, this chapter explores how and why the dictatorship – often portrayed in the literature as a laissez-­faire ruler – became deeply involved in directing a project of urban transformation. In its earlier decades, this project was part of a broader sense ‘civilising

in Lisbon rising
A Toilet Revolution and its socio-eco-technical entanglements
Deljana Iossifova

provision of affordable housing, education and, much neglected in the scholarly literature, universal sanitation and the handling of human waste. As rural-to-urban migrants agglomerate in older and impoverished neighbourhoods without access to sanitation in private homes, they have to rely on public toilets as municipalities struggle to develop appropriate responses to their sanitation needs (Iossifova, 2015 ; Zhou and Zhou, 2018 ). In this context, rethinking sanitation – under conditions of rapid urban transformation – seems sensible. The percentage of urban

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city