concerned with down-to-earth improvements in the territories under his
supervision, in addition to his literary and antiquarian pursuits.
To conclude, we can observe that
neither the Romanticist nor the Utilitarianapproach won complete sway
in the policy decisions of the East India Company in India during the
period between 1817 and 1857. While the Utilitarians (like James Mill
This book generates a critical framework through which to interrogate the way in which religious feminists have employed women's literature in their texts. This is in order that both the way we read literature and the literature we read might be subject to scrutiny, and that new reading practices be developed. Having both the critical and constructive agenda, this is a book in two parts. The first part locates the study of the use of women's writing by religious feminists in a much wider frame than has previously been attempted. In the past individual religious feminists have been criticised, often publicly and loudly, for the use they have made of particular literary texts. Having critically surveyed previously unacknowledged constraints under which religious feminists read women's literature, the second part of the book explores how the work of women poststructuralist thinkers and theorists can enrich the reading practices. It offers alternative models for an engagement between literature and theology. Julia Kristeva is best known within the academy for her unorthodox application of Lacanian theory to contemporary culture. Her work challenges religious feminists to reassess the utilitarian approaches to literary texts and enquire into whether these might have a more powerful political role when their status as literature is recognised and affirmed. The book elucidates Luce Irigaray's thinking on sexual difference and also demonstrates its significance for feminist religious readers.
condition of Louis XV’s France.
Combining radically sensationist views of the mind with a utilitarianapproach to politics, Helvétius’s works presented a world in which
Education and an ambivalent Enlightenment
education was saturated with social and political significance and social
and political circumstances were inescapably educative. The corollary
to his claim that education can do anything was, as a result, a sense that
education takes place everywhere.29 These points were central to his 1758
work, De l’Esprit, and then to his later De l
James Tod (1782-1835) spent twenty-two years in India (1800-1822), during the last five of which he was Political Agent of the British Government in India to the Western Rajput States in north-west India. His book studies Tod’s relationships with particular Rajput leaders and with the Rajputs as a group in general, in order to better understand his attempts to portray their history, geographical moorings and social customs to British and European readers. The book highlights Tod’s apparently numerous motivations in writing on the Rajputs: to bring knowledge about the Rajputs into European circles, to demonstrate that the Rajputs maintained historical records from the early middle ages and were thus not a primitive people without awareness of their own history, and to establish possible ethnic links between the warrior-like Rajputs and the peoples of Europe, as also between the feudal institutions of Rajputana and Europe. Fierce criticisms in Tod’s time of his ethnic and institutional hypotheses about connections between Rajputs and Europeans illustrate that Tod’s texts did not leave his readers indifferent. The approach adopted uses available documents to go beyond a binary opposition between the colonisers and the colonised in India, by focusing on traces of friendly exchanges between Tod and his British colleagues on the one hand, and on the other hand, various members of the kingdoms of western India, with whom they interacted. Under themes like landscape, anthropology, science, Romantic literature, approaches to government policy, and knowledge exchanges in India and in London, this volume analyses Tod’s role as a mediator of knowledge through his travels across a little-known part of the British Empire in the early 19th century.
placing it in opposition to the excessive authoritarianism
of paternal domination. Her work ascribes a greater transformative potential
to literature than we have encountered up till now. It thus challenges religious
feminists to reassess our utilitarianapproaches to literary texts and enquire into
whether these might have a more powerful political role when their status as
literature is recognised and affirmed.
To assess the significance of Luce Irigaray’s work for feminist religious readers
requires us to enter into an alternative conceptual space where language is
programme, but they disagree about why this is the case.
Similarly, we know from the history of political thought that utilitarians
have been among the most vocal and influential champions of individual
liberty (Mill, 1985 ). However, once again, the utilitarian commitment to rights of liberty is conditional: we should protect rights of liberty,
but only insofar as, in doing so, we best promote utility.
Sharing lives, shaping values, and voluntary civic education233
We have also referred to the utilitarianapproach to moral conflict (see
Chapter 3). As we saw
James Tod’s role in knowledge exchanges with the Rajputs
Chapter 5 , ‘Tod’s
Romantic approach as opposed to James Mill’s Utilitarianapproach
to British government in India’, puts side by side the ideological
contexts and publications of James Mill (1773–1836) and James Tod
(1782–1835), which appear on the surface to be diametrically
opposed. Mill never visited India, adhered to Jeremy Bentham’s
rational Utilitarian philosophy and published in 1817 his History
’; but as already
mentioned, there may be myriad ways of interpreting and applying a public
In the context of providing ART to HIV-infected individuals, a utilitarianapproach could call for treating the greatest number of people, even if
some (e.g. the sickest) could benefit only temporarily before their overall
health status worsens. On this view, health benefits would be maximised
even though the sickest people would receive a small amount of benefit. This
would appear to be consistent with Harris’s equal opportunity principle. On
a different and
these institutions, ever embodied what Irish society perceived as an ‘esprit
critique’ is doubtful; however, the situation has changed somewhat since
Irish universities began to keep students at university longer and increased
the number of research positions. Séamas Ó Buachalla writes in 1992, in
discussing the Irish state’s move since the 1960s to adopt a ‘more utilitarian’
approach to education at both second and third levels, that ‘[a]lmost 30 years
later it has not succeeded in shifting the curricular emphasis significantly
towards subject areas which have
utilitarian can be understood as an expression of an underlying ontology. (For example, Dworkin in Taking Rights Seriously (1977) argues for the integrity of legislation and principle.) Or the utilitarianapproach can assume that it grasps, not a universal ontology of the human, but the principles of modern rational social progress. Within broadly liberal institutions, in practice at least, the two approaches often work in tandem.
The language of universal human rights imagines it is talking to and for all the world, calling on both the persistence