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A global history

In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.

Britta Lundgren and Martin Holmberg

10 Pandemic flus and vaccination policies in Sweden Britta Lundgren and Martin Holmberg Introduction During the summer of 2010, unexpected reports of narcolepsy in Swedish children and adolescents after vaccination with the pandemic influenza vaccine Pandemrix came to the attention of the Medical Products Agency (MPA). The main features of this condition are

in The politics of vaccination
Elisha P. Renne

11 Polio vaccination, political authority and the Nigerian state Elisha P. Renne So I told him [a soldier] that even if they are going to kill me, I will not allow the governor to enter my house … I also said in the governor's presence that even if President Jonathan comes here, I will not allow them to immunize my child. So the governor

in The politics of vaccination
Polio in Eastern Europe
Dora Vargha

3 Vaccination and the communist state: polio in Eastern Europe Dora Vargha In December 1959, Hungary introduced into its national immunisation programme the Sabin vaccine, the live poliovirus vaccine that has been the tool of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative since 1988. This campaign put Hungary in the front line of polio vaccination with live virus vaccines along with the Soviet

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Mass vaccination and the public since the Second World War
Author: Gareth Millward

Vaccinating Britain investigates the relationship between the British public and vaccination policy since 1945. It is the first book to examine British vaccination policy across the post-war period and covers a range of vaccines, providing valuable context and insight for those interested in historical or present-day public health policy debates. Drawing on government documents, newspapers, internet archives and medical texts it shows how the modern vaccination system became established and how the public played a key role in its formation. British parents came to accept vaccination as a safe, effective and cost-efficient preventative measure. But occasional crises showed that faith in the system was tied to contemporary concerns about the medical profession, the power of the state and attitudes to individual vaccines. Thus, at times the British public demanded more comprehensive vaccination coverage from the welfare state; at others they eschewed specific vaccines that they thought were dangerous or unnecessary. Moreover, they did not always act uniformly, with “the public” capable of expressing contradictory demands that were often at odds with official policy. This case study of Britain’s vaccination system provides insight into the relationship between the British public and the welfare state, as well as contributing to the historiography of public health and medicine.

Open Access (free)
Planned Obsolescence of Medical Humanitarian Missions: An Interview with Tony Redmond, Professor and Practitioner of International Emergency Medicine and Co-founder of HCRI and UK-Med

they say, ‘Oh, that’s fine,’ but that is surgery . It is a conceptual thing. But safe surgery can have an impact on a community as great, for example, as a vaccination programme. So, you might think, ‘That can’t be right: vaccination programmes are as cheap as chips and you can get them out to lots of people’ – yes, but your target audiences are not economically active, so this may sound very consequentialist or whatever, but that’s the fact; they are not the most

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

be quarantined, most escaped and resisted the ring-vaccination efforts. In the following days, district officials discussed whether to shut down the market, as had been done at the peak of the epidemic, but an official decision was not communicated. In the early morning of 26 January, Bamoi residents who went to the mosque heard a sudden announcement that the market would close. The announcement was broadcast through the mosque loudspeakers, and an

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell, and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

assessments are challenging because, for example, the impact of lacking vaccinations is easier to quantify than the lack of information in specific languages. To address such challenges, representatives from the affected linguistic and cultural groups should be included in these discussions and their concerns and proposals addressed in resulting guidelines and procedures. Humanitarian organisations may need training to raise their awareness of the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

explore the potential of and flaws in innovative interventions, or to create radical programmatic solutions, which, despite their uniqueness, adhere to strict programme ethical standards. One recent example of such a breakthrough occurred with the emergency response to the Ebola crisis and the development of a vaccine against the Zaire ebolavirus and implementation of a vaccination programme. The vaccine was developed within a fractional time envelope and administered

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

hospitals there. Consequently, he was under a high risk of being detained and he had to give up his medical training. Between 2013 and 2016, Dr Ekzayez worked for Save the Children, leading their health response in north-west Syria. In the same period, he was heavily involved in the polio vaccination and in strengthening the health system in the region through supporting the establishment of Idleb Health Directorate. Late in 2016, he moved to the UK to do a master’s in Epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM). Between 2017 and 2020 he was

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs