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Series: Artes Liberales
Author: Lindy Brady

The Welsh borderlands were a distinctive territory where two peoples came together throughout the Anglo-Saxon period. It was here that men skilled at law drew up the Dunsate Agreement, to solve the impending problems with cattle theft. This book explores what sets the Dunsate Agreement apart from other Anglo-Saxon law codes grappling with cattle theft, highlighting that creators of this document, and the community that it concerns, included both Anglo-Saxons and Welsh. It argues that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle represents the military culture of the Welsh borderlands in a distinctive way which aligns its inhabitants with outlaws. The book articulates a discernible culture in the Welsh borderlands prior to 1066. Bede's The Historia Ecclesiastica has long been interpreted as a narrative of Anglo/British strife. His rancour towards the pagan Mercians provides substantial information about the life of Penda of Mercia, whose entire reign over this borderlands kingdom was defined by consistent political and military unity with Welsh rulers. Expanding on the mixed culture, the book examines the various Latin and Old English Lives of the popular Anglo-Saxon saint, Guthlac of Crowland. Vernacular literary tradition reveals a group of Old English riddles that link the 'dark Welsh' to agricultural labour through the cattle they herd, and who have long been understood to show the Welsh as slaves. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is frequently cited as a paradigm of Anglo/Welsh antagonism. The book reveals that the impact of the Norman Conquest on the Anglo-Welsh border region was much greater than previously realised.

Lindy Brady

4 •• The ‘dark Welsh’ as slaves and slave raiders in Exeter Book riddles 52 and 721 The previous chapter argued that the Latin and vernacular Lives of Saint Guthlac show a mixed Anglo-Welsh culture among warrior elites in the borderlands. This conceptualisation of the borderlands was not limited to the learned clerics responsible for Anglo-Saxon hagiography. More popular vernacular literary tradition reflected some of the same ideas. A group of Old English riddles whose setting is the Welsh mearc (march or boundary) depict a common culture of the borderlands in

in Writing the Welsh borderlands in Anglo-Saxon England
Victoria Moul

the early seventeenth century, the importance of manuscript transmission and circulation and the fresh interest in formal hexameter verse satire and mock-epic in the early eighteenth century all correspond to contemporary features of vernacular literary culture, though offer interesting new perspectives upon it. Other elements of what we find, however, have no clear parallel in the vernacular literary

in Changing satire
Ascension theology in liminal spaces
Johanna Kramer

. 33 As the lively ongoing scholarship on vernacular literary traditions in post-Conquest England has shown, much can be learned from studying this area, not only about later medieval literary culture but, reflexively, about Anglo-Saxon England. 34 Homily collections from the late eleventh and twelfth centuries (such as the Trinity Homilies) are important witnesses to vernacular preaching in the early post-Conquest period that can instruct us about the continuities and innovations of twelfth-century literary activity. They can also sometimes supplement

in Between earth and heaven