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Author: Vanessa Heggie

Athletes start the century as normal, healthy citizens, and end up as potentially unhealthy physiological 'freaks', while the general public are increasingly urged to do more exercise and play more sports. This book offers a comprehensive study, and social history, of the development of sports medicine in Britain, as practiced by British doctors and on British athletes in national and international settings. It describes how and why, in Britain, medicine applied to sport became first an area of expertise known as sports medicine, and then a formal medical specialty: Sport and Exercise Medicine. In the late nineteenth century, vigorous exercise was an acceptable, probably necessary, part of the moderate healthy lifestyle for the normal, healthy man. Consequently sports medicine was part and parcel of normal medical treatment, distinguishable only through its location or through its patient history. There was no wide-spread de facto scepticism about the value of vigorous exercise among physicians and scientists. The normality of the young male athlete is reconsidered between 1928 and 1952. At the end of the period, the athlete becomes an abnormal or supernormal human being who demands specialist medical interventions. The formation and work of British Association of Sport and (Exercise) Medicine, the Institute of Sports Medicine, the Sports Council, and the British Olympic Association's Medical Committee is discussed. The book finally discusses fitness. Normal life, war, elite competition gives us an insight into how athletic bodies are conceptualised, and how sports medicine has formed and reformed over a century.

Vanessa Heggie

either because individuals actively sought out specialist treatment (as evidenced by the private SICs) or through a rhetoric of risk. Sport was a drug which required practitioner control – used correctly it could cure, used incorrectly it could kill. This tension was perhaps most notable in one resurgent area of sports medicine treatment, and that is the use of sport as a rehabilitative treatment. Rehabilitation through sport had been ongoing since Guttman’s work in the 1940s, but the 1970s and 1980s saw a particular interest in the use of vigorous exercise for the

in A history of British sports medicine
Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.

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Vanessa Heggie

sceptical doctors who apparently took very cautionary stances on the value of exercise and regularly warned of its potential dangers. 24 Here, in Chapter 2 , and elsewhere I have shown that there are other interpretations of the materials used in these studies; I believe that the British medical and scientific professions had a much more robust take on exercise and fatigue, with most mainstream textbooks downplaying the risks of even the most vigorous exercise on the bodies of young, fit, men. 25 (The potential effects on those who were not young adults, male or

in A history of British sports medicine
Protestant and Catholic bodies
Tessa Storey

pores. Given that they could also admit air into the body, corrupted air was likewise believed to penetrate the skin. We find references to this threat in discussions of plague from the late fifteenth to mid-seventeenth century in England and Italy, as readers are advised against vigorous exercise or hot baths at times of plague, both of which opened the pores excessively wide, allowing corrupted air to flow into the body.37 In English regimens the dangers associated with widened pores gradually become a significant consideration even in general healthy living advice

in Conserving health in early modern culture
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Michael D. Leigh

lost between missionaries and most colonial officials, many of whom were unbearably arrogant. Winston abhorred them in the beginning and Miss Dorothy Mackley distrusted them at the end. 4 Colonial residents were equally irritated by the prudery of the Wesleyans. In 1925 the Mandalay District Medical Officer, Dr Sheldon, lost patience with the stream of pallid missionaries shuffling through his surgery. He wrote disparagingly to the WMMS Medical Officer in London suggesting that they should have more fresh air and vigorous exercise

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
Vanessa Heggie

the rare (but increasing) number of specialty medical sites such as the operating theatres of knee surgeons or the Footballers’ Hospital. What is perhaps the most distinctive feature of sports medicine at this time is its policing activity; how doctors were able to declare some bodies unfit for some sports – in addition to the ‘common sense’ decision that women should be excluded from vigorous exercise. In the first decade of the twentieth century this was expressed at the highest competitive levels through the introduction of screening at the Olympic Games. In

in A history of British sports medicine
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Sexual surgery and Dracula
Marie Mulvey-Roberts

exercise, an activity more compatible with a masculine lifestyle than that of a late Victorian young lady. For males, vigorous exercise and circumcision was demanded by the social purity movement, which was intent on deterring ‘self-pollution’ and its attendant maladies. At its height, during the latter part of the nineteenth century, the penises of 30 to 40 per cent of boys in Britain were cut. A class

in Dangerous bodies
Simon Walker

special confidence. 131 His reward was an unprecedented elevation from king’s sergeant to Chief Justice of King’s Bench in November 1400, but the resulting responsibilities went beyond the strictly judicial. In Yorkshire, his possession of the threefold commission of assize, gaol delivery and the peace, vigorously exercised on his usually biannual visits to the county and bolstered by further ad hoc commissions issued to him in times of unrest or rebellion 132 , gave him overall responsibility for the execution of criminal justice in the county and made him one of

in Political culture in later medieval England
Sukanta Chaudhuri

Pastoral Poetry of the English Renaissance contains the text of the poems with brief headnotes giving date, source and other basic information, and footnotes with full annotation.

in Pastoral poetry of the English Renaissance