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Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

Introduction Despite seventy years of UN programme interventions, the need for global humanitarian assistance has not been greater since the end of the Second World War ( UNHCR, 2016a ). In 2017, more than 201 million people living in 134 countries required humanitarian assistance, with a record 68.5 million people forcibly displaced by violence and conflict ( Development Initiatives, 2018 ; UNHCR, 2017 ). The use of violence and conflict by state and non

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Theory, practice and difference

While women directors continue to be a minority in most national and transnational film contexts, there are those among them who rank among the most innovative and inventive of filmmakers. Filmmaking by women becomes an important route to exploring what lies outside of and beyond the stereotype through reflexivity on violence and conflict, and through visual and narrative explorations of migration, exile, subjectivity, history or individual and collective memory. By documenting and interpreting a fascinating corpus of films made by women coming from Latin America, the US, Portugal and Spain, this book proposes research strategies and methodologies that can expand our understanding of socio-cultural and psychic constructions of gender and sexual politics. It critically examines the work of Hispanic and Lusophone female filmmakers. It 'weaves' several 'threads' by working at the intersections between feminist film theory, gender studies and film practices by women in Latin America, the US, Portugal and Spain. The book explores the transcultural connections, as well as the cultural specificities, that can be established between Spanish, Portuguese, Latin American and Latino contexts within and beyond the framework of the nation state. It suggests that the notion of home and of Basque motherland carry potentially different resonances for female directors.

Laura Tisdall

Using a case study of the secondary modern school in the 1950s and 1960s, this chapter explores why media depictions of the ‘sec. mod.’ or ‘modern school’ were so fraught with violence and conflict during this period. Class is a key variable; the 1944 Education Act had brought a new influx of working-class children within the ambit of state education at the same time as the teaching profession, especially at secondary level, was attracting more middle-class recruits. However, teachers from working-class backgrounds also had a vested interest in maintaining a ‘cultural gap’ between themselves and their pupils. The anxieties engendered by progressive teaching methods, I suggest, increasingly defined the interests of the child and teacher not as a unity, but in opposition to each other. Non-utopian progressive education contributed to this shift by emphasising the gulf between the abilities of children and of adults, reconfiguring childhood and youth as negatively defined by what subjects were unable to do before they reached adulthood. Both children and adolescents were characterised by their essential egotism, their orientation towards practical and concrete experience that directly related to their own lives, and their lack of capacity for abstract reasoning.

in A progressive education?
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Reconceptualising displacement
Mateja Celestina

1 1 Introduction: reconceptualising displacement …no one lives in the world in general. (Geertz 1996: 262) At the end of 2016, Colombia counted more than seven million people displaced due to violence and conflict, a number which places it at the very top of the global statistics. The recurrent nature of the phenomenon, which has shaped the country’s demographics, makes displacement seem a natural occurrence. A somewhat contradictory process is going on. The greater the number of the displaced, the more desensitised Colombian society seems to be towards

in Living displacement
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Derek Birrell

administrative responsibility over. In practice direct rule meant the exercise of all functions of government in Northern Ireland by the UK Government. With the introduction of direct rule the British Government had direct comprehensive control over key policies to tackle the continuing violence and conflict in the areas of security policy, the search for a BDR01.indd 1 3/23/2009 4:09:23 PM 2 Direct rule and the governance of Northern Ireland Table 1.1 Northern Ireland governance 1972 1974 1999 2002 2007 Direct rule imposed Northern Ireland Executive and assembly (five

in Direct rule and the governance of Northern Ireland
Open Access (free)
Corpses and mass violence: an inventory of the unthinkable
Élisabeth Anstett and Jean-Marc Dreyfus

Genocide: Mass Murder in ­Historical Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003); M. Shaw, War and Genocide: Organized Killing in Modern Society (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2003); M. Levene, Genocide in the Age of the Nation State (London: I. B. Tauris, 2005). B. Schmidt & I. Schröder, Anthropology of Violence and Conflict (London: Routledge, 2001); A. L. Hinton & K. L. O’Neill, Genocide: Truth, Memory and Representation (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009). A. Corbin, J.-J. Courtine & G. Vigarello, Histoire du corps (3 vols) (Paris: Le Seuil, 2005, 2005

in Human remains and mass violence
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Lesley Pruitt and Erica Rose Jeffrey

. 2 Internationally, dance has grown in popularity as a means of connecting people and communities experiencing violence and conflict, with fellow peacebuilders around the world. Moreover, these connections have been amplified through the increased visibility and enhanced global awareness of a connection between dance and peacebuilding. Consider, for example, the global One Billion Rising (OBR) campaign, initiated by Eve Ensler. 3 Participants around the world learn the OBR choreography

in Dancing through the dissonance
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Graham Spencer

separation, but, by exposing the inability of this separation to serve the people of Northern Ireland as a whole, the peace process brought into question mythologies about separation. It suggested that the answer to violence and conflict lay in designing mechanisms that locked the political parities into a process where interdependence and joint decision-making became a working method of politics

in Inside Accounts, Volume II
Lesley Pruitt and Erica Rose Jeffrey

in which the complexities of building peace are envisioned through the sense of movement and choreography. At the same time, the role of dance in peacebuilding expands beyond the metaphorical sense, occurring in material, physical spaces all around the world, including in countries facing, recovering from or working to prevent a wide range of types of violence and conflict. For example, media reports have documented how the National Ballet of Rwanda, which includes Rwandan dancers from different sides of the conflict, many of whom were refugees

in Dancing through the dissonance