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Mark O’Brien

204 12 An appalling vista Journalism operates on the assumption that almost nothing is known, that everything has to be found out [while] the church operates on the opposite assumption: that everything that matters in known, has been revealed to us, and needs only to be interpreted correctly and acted upon.1 — Fintan O’Toole in the Irish Times, 1991 The seemingly endless revelations of wrongdoing that flowed from Ben Dunne’s escapade in Florida exposed what many people –​not least journalists –​had suspected all along: that there existed a golden circle of

in The Fourth Estate
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The Expositions Universelles, Great Exhibitions and World’s Fairs, 1851–1939

The international exhibitions held around the world between 1851 and 1939 were spectacular gestures, which briefly held the attention of the world before disappearing into an abrupt oblivion, of the victims of their planned temporality. Known in Britain as Great Exhibitions, in France as Expositions Universelles and in America as World's Fairs, the genre became a self-perpetuating phenomenon, the extraordinary cultural spawn of industry and empire. Thoroughly in the spirit of the first industrial age, the exhibitions illustrated the relation between money and power, and revelled in the belief that the uncontrolled expression of that power was the quintessence of freedom. Philanthropy found its place on exhibition sites functioning as a conscience to the age although even here morality was inextricably linked to economic efficiency and expansion. Imperial achievement was celebrated to the full at international exhibitions. Nevertheless, most World's Fairs maintained an imperial element and out of this blossomed a vibrant racism. Between 1889 and 1914, the exhibitions became a human showcase, when people from all over the world were brought to sites in order to be seen by others for their gratification and education. In essence, the English national profile fabricated in the closing decades of the nineteenth century was derived from the pre-industrial world. The Fine Arts were an important ingredient in any international exhibition of calibre. This book incorporates comparative work on European and American empire-building, with the chronological focus primarily on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, when these cultural exchanges were most powerfully at work.

Amanda Alencar
Julia Camargo

Introduction When Adriana left Venezuela to go to Brazil in 2018, she said it was very important for her to get rid of the idea that newcomers must work in a job related to what they had studied in their home country. For Adriana, a former teacher in her fifties, the experience of migrating to the city of Boa Vista, capital of the state of Roraima in Northwestern Brazil, gave her the opportunity to use her cooking skills to start an informal food

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Race and the Tragedy of American Democracy
Eddie S. Glaude Jr.

In this essay, Eddie S. Glaude, Jr. addresses the historical and contemporary failures of American democracy. Using the metaphor of “the magician’s serpent,” Glaude brings Walt Whitman’s views on democracy into the full light of America’s failure to resolve the problem of race. Glaude places Whitman’s Democratic Vistas (1871) in conversation with James Baldwin’s No Name in the Street (1972) in order to construct a different sort of reading practice that can both engage with Whitman’s views on democracy and reckon with what George Hutchinson calls Whitman’s “white imperialist self and ideology” as an indication of the limits of a certain radical democratic imagining.

James Baldwin Review
The Future of Work among the Forcibly Displaced
Evan Easton-Calabria
Andreas Hackl

. Alencar and Camargo (in this issue) explore a digital work intervention for Venezuelan refugees in Boa Vista, Brazil, revealing ‘asymmetric digital imaginaries’ between humanitarian agencies’ understanding of the needs and aims of ICT use by refugees and the reality of how and why refugees make use of technology for work (or don’t). This and other reflections throughout the issue highlight the importance of evaluating not only the outcomes of existing

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
Logan Cochrane

Initiative (ARI): Mid-Term Evaluation and Phase III Baseline Survey . USAID . ( 2017 ) Assessment of USAID/South Sudan’s Viable Support to Transition and Stability (VISTAS) Report . World Bank . ( 2011 ) Implementation Completion and Results Report (TF-57638) . World Food Programme . ( 2017 ) South Sudan: An Evaluation of WFP’s Portfolio (2011–2016) . https

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

Across the early decades of the seventeenth century, Englishmen and women moved through a physical, social, and mental world organised into a carefully maintained balance of motion and pause. This book examines how seventeenth-century English architectural theorists and designers rethought the domestic built environment in terms of mobility, as motion became a dominant mode of articulating the world across discourses. These discourses encompassed philosophy, political theory, poetry, and geography. From mid-century, the house and estate that had evoked staccato rhythms became triggers for mental and physical motion-evoking travel beyond England's shores, displaying vistas, and showcasing changeable wall surfaces. The book sets in its cultural context a strand of historical analysis stretching back to the nineteenth century Heinrich Wolfflin. It brings together the art, architectural, and cultural historical strands of analysis by examining why seventeenth-century viewers expected to be put in motion and what the effects were of that motion. Vistas, potentially mobile wall surface, and changeable garden provided precisely the essential distraction that rearticulated social divisions and assured the ideal harmony. Alternately feared and praised early in the century for its unsettling unpredictability, motion became the most certain way of comprehending social interactions, language, time, and the buildings that filtered human experience. At the heart of this book is the malleable sensory viewer, tacitly assumed in early modern architectural theory and history whose inescapable responsiveness to surrounding stimuli guaranteed a dependable world from the seventeenth century.

Kimberley Skelton

5 The disciplinary distraction of motion When guests moved through the interior and garden spaces beyond the façade that offered such cues to motion, they found themselves enveloped in the perpetual changeability described by poets and encountered across social practice. In once enclosed entertaining rooms, vistas stretched before them through doors and windows to reveal long sweeps of interior and exterior space, while the walls of these rooms suggested sequences of events that could occur before their surprised eyes. And they walked through gardens that

in The paradox of body, building and motion in seventeenth-century England
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Habana Blues and the framing of diasporic cubanía
Susan Thomas

music – and its new, transnational message – both on the island and off. Since Wim Wenders released his hit documentary, Buena Vista Social Club , in 1999, Cuban music has been the subject of a plethora of films produced by both Cuban filmmakers and international directors. These films include full-length documentaries and feature films as well as film shorts, such as Habana Abierta (Open Havana, Arturo Soto and Jorge

in Screening songs in Hispanic and Lusophone cinema
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Katy Layton-Jones

, ‘all maps are rhetorical’.8 This same paradox exists in images of the urban environment that were affected by prevalent social, political, and aesthetic values. An inclusive vista like that selected by Lacey offered artists and commentators a huge range of visual motifs that could be excluded or privileged within the scene. As a result, distant views can reveal consistencies, disparities, and contradictions in the reality and reputation of a town. 22 The urban prospect 1  T. Kelly, Glasgow (1817). 2  ‘Liverpool Looking North’, in Pictorial Liverpool (1846). 23

in Beyond the metropolis