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This book attempts to interrogate the literary, artistic and cultural output of early modern England. Following Constance Classen's view that understandings of the senses, and sensory experience itself, are culturally and historically contingent; it explores the culturally specific role of the senses in textual and aesthetic encounters in England. The book follows Joachim-Ernst Berendt's call for 'a democracy of the senses' in preference to the various sensory hierarchies that have often shaped theory and criticism. It argues that the playhouse itself challenged its audiences' reliance on the evidence of their own eyes, teaching early modern playgoers how to see and how to interpret the validity of the visual. The book offers an essay on each of the five senses, beginning and ending with two senses, taste and smell, that are often overlooked in studies of early modern culture. It investigates Robert Herrick's accounts in Hesperides of how the senses function during sexual pleasure and contact. The book also explores sensory experiences, interrogating textual accounts of the senses at night in writings from the English Renaissance. It offers a picture of early modern thought in which sensory encounters are unstable, suggesting ways in which the senses are influenced by the contexts in which they are experienced: at night, in states of sexual excitement, or even when melancholic. The book looks at the works of art themselves and considers the significance of the senses for early modern subjects attending a play, regarding a painting, and reading a printed volume.

Staging visual clues and early modern aspiration
Jackie Watson

2 ‘Dove-like looks’ and ‘serpents eyes’: staging visual clues and early modern aspiration Jackie Watson The traditional sensual hierarchy, in the tradition of Aristotle, gave primacy to the sense of sight.1 However, there is much evidence to suggest that the judgements of many late Elizabethans were more ambivalent. In this chapter I shall ask how far an early modern playgoer could trust the evidence of his or her own eyes. Sight was, at the same time, the most perfect of senses and the potential entry route for evil. It was the means by which men and women

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
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Katharine Cox
Kate Watson

together, or body modifications, which typically cut the skin, scoring the flesh, the practice of tattooing locates the scar within the skin’s dermis. It reminds us that skin is not just surface but extends beyond the visual clue. In the practice of tattooing, layers of the skin’s epidermis are repeatedly penetrated by a sharp instrument, to affect the dermis layer, and pigment applied into the wound. As part of the healing process, a scab then forms which ultimately drops off, revealing the tattoo. The gaining of a tattoo is not an instantaneous event; rather, the

in Tattoos in crime and detective narratives
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Kate Moles
Charlotte Bates

place, drought narratives work against the norms of media templates, cultural memories and gender conformity. Flow In Flow , we are confronted and challenged by water’s propensity to escape, disrupt and overwhelm existing systems of infrastructure and knowledge. Becky Shaw describes the work she undertook with Calgary’s leak locators, and the different instruments they drew on to make sense of the world as leaky. Rather than using visual clues that alert us to problematic results of leaks – surface water

in Living with water
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Imagining the new society
Alison Smith

visual clues, certainly understands what he wants long before he succeeds in expressing it, and so, we assume, does his listener; however, the visual clues remain just that, a visual equivalent of the father’s hesitant equivocations and not a straightforward illustration. The film, too, avoids the direct representation which would be the equivalent of naming the act, until the taboo is discounted by a word or act of acceptance on the part of the listener. Although the father’s account of the mother’s death requires a certain amount of

in French cinema in the 1970s
Open Access (free)
Holly Dugan

aesthetic one. Part of this has to do with the conventions of early modern art. As François Quiviger has argued, the relationship between these two sensory modes in Italian renaissance art is complex: flowers, for instance, are common allegories of both visual and olfactory beauty. Likewise, the sensory horrors of plague, particularly the stench associated with death, are rarely depicted visually, and are usually signified by a single figure, holding his nose.31 Beyond signifying a good or bad scent, what do visual clues signify? When olfaction is depicted extensively, it

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
Rob Boddice

. The editorialising involved in presenting a partial face is revealing of the extent to which humans rely on visual clues from the whole face and the rest of the body in their efforts to work out what is going on. Seldom are we confronted in life with bits of faces, foreheads, chins and isolated eyes, and have to decipher their visual clues in isolation. Moreover, the fact that Darwin instructed the actor to act as if he were in grief highlights the tautology inherent in any such methodology. The image of grief, or any other emotion, is assumed to exist prior to its

in The history of emotions
William Welstead

envelope. Ennion found that this recycled resource had just the right texture for this type of painting. The address and postage stamp are still on the back of the picture. These images are instantly recognisable to the experienced field naturalist. They carry sufficient visual clues or signs to denote the species represented, but at the same time they are highly atmospheric. They also provide starting points for us to wander off on chains of connotations that complement our own experience in the field. These are not paintings for those birders whose only interest is to

in Extending ecocriticism
Sylvie Magerstädt

Brooke (2003–14) suggests in his commentary for BBC Screen Online that the show attempts to address these issues by using visual clues to give the plays a more coherent appeal. For instance, the Forum in Rome is shown to be under construction in Coriolanus, but completed by the time the Julius Caesar episodes start. He further observes that in ‘contrast to the more intimate approach favoured by later projects such as the BBC Television Shakespeare, Dews here attempted a genuine sense of scale’ (2003–14). It seems that the producers did not yet appreciate the capacity

in TV antiquity
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Cross-cultural tattooing in Caryl Férey’s New Zealand crime fiction
Ellen Carter

traditional tattooing in three ways: to develop the plot, to deepen characterisation and to establish the cultural background against which his intrigue plays out. In engraving deviance on faces, Férey mines a crime fiction trope that harks back to Sherlock Holmes and other early practitioners who used visual clues to identify criminals (Kustritz 2012 ). This references Cesare Lombroso’s nineteenth-century theories of anthropological criminology, where he linked crime with inherited – often visible – characteristics (Lombroso-Ferrero 1972 ). Although the presence of moko

in Tattoos in crime and detective narratives