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Counter-power in photography from slavery to Occupy Wall Street
Nicholas Mirzoeff

208 15 The visual commons: counter-​ power in photography from slavery to Occupy Wall Street Nicholas Mirzoeff If global visual culture summons up a world of surveillance, drones, rendition and annexation, I want to begin with a reminder: we were there first, on the commons, claiming the right to look.1 The right to look was and is a horizontal process, producing the visual commons that has become photographic (Mirzoeff 2011). This photography exists in the moment I claim the right to look, and grant that right to others without reservations or guarantees

in Image operations
From caricature to portraiture
Henry Miller

3 Radical visual culture: from caricature to portraiture The previous chapter highlighted the importance of portraiture for shaping the identities of the political parties formed in the wake of the 1832 Reform Act. However, it was radicals who were consistently the most innovative in their exploitation of new visual technologies. This was no coincidence. Portraiture was even more valuable to radical movements, which frequently experienced media indifference or hostility. To counter this, radicals produced their own series to project their own self-image to

in Politics personified
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Oral history and institutional photographs
Jesse Adams Stein

2 The visual at work: oral history and institutional photographs All these pictures would have been posed for. Ha! You know, in reality, it wasn’t as orderly as that!1 – Former NSW Government Printer Don West Oral history can serve a vital role when interweaving labour history with design and material culture. The way that printers speak, for example, is often rich in visual and material detail and peppered with industry slang. In the interviews undertaken for Hot Metal, the conversations revealed that retired printers typically retain an exceptionally thorough

in Hot metal
Willard Bohn

14 Visual approaches to Futurist aeropoetry Willard Bohn Willard Bohn Visual approaches to Futurist aeropoetry On 22 September 1929, F. T. Marinetti published a document that would profoundly affect the nature of Futurist research: Prospettive del volo e aeropittura.1 In particular, he urged the Futurist painters to celebrate the immense visual and sensory drama of flight. The artists responded enthusiastically to Marinetti’s challenge and produced a series of paintings that are as striking today as when they were originally created (Crispolti 1985; Mantura

in Back to the Futurists
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Thomas Tolley

In the later Middle Ages visual culture – and access to it – was an expensive business. The end of the period witnessed the rise of a flourishing culture of reproduction, with widely affordable images in woodcuts and printed books. 1 But the most eye-catching developments in the visual arts remained the preserve of those with significant means – royalty and the

in Gentry culture in late-medieval England

The issue of ethnicity in France, and how ethnicities are represented there visually, remains one of the most important and polemical aspects of French post-colonial politics and society. This is the first book to analyse how a range of different ethnicities have been represented across contemporary French visual culture. Via a wide series of case studies – from the worldwide hit film Amélie to France’s popular TV series Plus belle la vie – it probes how ethnicities have been represented across different media, including film, photography, television and the visual arts. Four chapters examine distinct areas of particular importance: national identity, people of Algerian heritage, Jewishness and France’s second city Marseille.

Ekphrasis, readers, ‘iconotexts’
Claus Clüver

12 On gazers’ encounters with visual art: ekphrasis, readers, ‘iconotexts’1 Claus Clüver Some twenty years ago, responding to the recent books on ekphrasis by Murray Krieger and James Heffernan, I presented a long conference paper entitled ‘Ekphrasis Reconsidered: On Verbal Representations of Non-Verbal Texts’ in which I proposed a rather radical revision of the concept of ‘ekphrasis’ underlying those earlier studies.2 Although reducing a concept to a single phrase without further commentary and explanation is always likely to lead to misunderstandings, it is

in Ekphrastic encounters
Henry Miller

1 The visual culture of reform, 1830–32 This chapter examines the visual culture stimulated by the popular fervour for reform, and sheds new light on the making of the 1832 Reform Act and how it was perceived at the time. Prints and other forms of material culture presented reform as revitalising and restoring balance to a moribund constitution. Just as significantly, reform of the electoral system was linked to long-demanded calls for retrenchment in the state and reduced taxation. Reform would lead to the breaking up of the ‘Old Corruption’, the web of state

in Politics personified
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Brian Baker

‘book’ rather than ‘text’ in the preceding sentence, for a recurrent (yet hardly remarked upon critically) motif in Sinclair’s work is the importance of the book as a visual object, signified by effects of typography, illustrations and other visual material, photographs, diagrams, and in the limited editions of Sinclair’s texts produced by Goldmark, additional holographic or other inserted material. (In Dark Lanthorns , this is a piece of printed paper which approximates the wrapper of a bar of chocolate with some written directions on the reverse.) Initially, one

in Iain Sinclair
The “Clean City” law in São Paulo, Brazil
Marina Da Silva

7 Making sense of visual pollution: The “Clean City” law in São Paulo, Brazil Marina Da Silva Introduction The impact of human activity on the Earth has been a central environmental concern throughout contemporary history. One of the main challenges of the Anthropocene (Crutzen and Stoermer 2000) is to reverse the damage we are doing to the planet through climate change and industrial pollution (National Research Council 2012). The focus of this chapter is on a perhaps less known type of ­harm – ­visual pollution. Unlike other forms of sensory pollution, such as

in Toxic truths