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‘reproofe to these degenerate effeminate dayes?
Carol Banks

This chapter proposes to return the female characters to the centre of history's stage, to reopen the closet to which they were seemingly confined in Henry V. In King John, in addition to the stage presence of the warlike Queen Eleanor, whilst the men are failing to protect their country and save 'mother England' from foreign occupation, brave English women are taking matters into their own hands. Constance's verbal performance in King John is reminiscent of the female roles in Richard III, for here women's tongues are likewise sharp and active. The impact of images of women conveyed via the language of the plays should not be underestimated. It has been argued that William Shakespeare's audiences possessed a highly tuned 'image consciousness' inherited from their medieval ancestors, so that spectators at the drama could readily construct offstage pictures in the mind's eye.

in Shakespeare’s histories and counter-histories

In the Renaissance, the archetype for history was the classical muse Clio, a much-painted figure in an era when the 'history painting' was one of the predominant genres in European visual art. One Renaissance dramatist and poet who never made reference to Clio was William Shakespeare. This book is about official and unofficial versions of the past, histories and counter-histories, in Shakespeare's works and their subsequent appropriations. It builds on a long period in which those of us working in literary and theatre studies have developed an awareness of the extent to which conventional recreations of the past are mediated through the fictionalising structures of narrative. The book explores how the history plays construct counter-historical representations of the dead. It argues that the 'dislocutionary' threat of grief and the performance of the suffering body is a version of the kind of spectator/spectre relationship drawn in any ritualised encounter with the cult of the ancestor. The book combines four historicist readings which explore counter-histories in the early modern period. It examines the relationship between Shakespeare's history plays and alternative dynastic histories. The book also explores questions of history and identity, particularly as they can be configured through performance. It challenges the view that women become progressively marginalised across the histories by arguing that Shakespeare's warlike women enact a power onstage which forces us to rethink official, patriarchal history.

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Artists, histories and counter-histories
Stuart Hampton-Reeves

women do. Where Rutter, like Joughin and Findlay, turns most of her attention on the suffering body, Carol Banks considers empowered women and their counter-histories. In her chapter, ‘Warlike women: “reproofe to these degenerate, effeminate dayes”?’, Banks challenges the view that women become progressively marginalised across the histories by arguing that Shakespeare’s warlike women

in Shakespeare’s histories and counter-histories
Stephen Orgel

, and so deeply embedded in its conception, that it will repay close attention. Here is a translation of the relevant section: Diodorus writes that the gorgons were warlike women in Africa who were overcome by Perseus, who also killed Queen Medusa; this may be historical. But the fables report, as Apollodorus writes

in Spectacular Performances
Alden T. Vaughan

:09 252 Alden T. Vaughan Guiana as a handbook of native culture as one could have taken Harriot’s to Roanoke. Yet Ralegh’s book was tremendously valuable as a guide to Guiana’s political and geographic divisions and subdivisions. If Harriot’s Briefe and True Report was good amateur anthropology, Ralegh’s Discoverie of Guiana was good amateur geopolitics. There is, of course, the embarrassing matter of Ralegh’s gullibility – as critics have long insisted. He described Amazons, those ‘warlike women’ who (at least those near Guiana) ‘do accompanie with men but once a

in Literary and visual Ralegh
Yves Peyré

Lycosthenes’ 1592 edition of Textor’s Officina , which included both Linocier’s Mythologiae Musae Libellus and Giraldi’s De Musis Syntagma , 20 so that he could easily base his development on the former while inserting some elements from the latter. Textor’s Officina , edited by Lycosthenes, is not strictly speaking a mythographical treatise, but more of a thought-structuring commonplace book. 21 It is of great use to Heywood because it presents historical and mythological figures arranged in thematic categories. Thus the section ‘Of warlike women, and those of

in Thomas Heywood and the classical tradition
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A series of first female presidents from Commander in Chief to House of Cards
Elisabeth Bronfen

The Winter’s Tale in Disowning Knowledge in Seven Plays of Shakespeare (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 193–221. 20 In her article ‘Warlike Women: “reproofe to these degenerate effeminate dayes”’, in Dermot Cavanah, Stuart Hampton-Reeves, and Stephen Langstaffe (eds), Shakespeare’s Histories and Counter-Histories (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006), Carol Banks also draws into focus that, while Cordelia is meant to contrast her cruel sisters, she, too, plays a military role, and that while the dowager Queen Eleanor may be less

in Serial Shakespeare