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Middle-class men on the English Home Front, 1914–18
Author: Laura Ugolini

Historians of the First World War often seem to have a very clear idea of who middle-class men were and how they reacted to the outbreak of the conflict. This book explores the experiences of middle-class men on the English home front during the First World War. It first focuses on the first twelve months or so of war, a period when many middle-class men assumed that the war could hardly fail to affect them. The book then delves deeper into middle-class men's understandings of civilians' appropriate behaviour in wartime. It explores middle-class men's reasons for not conforming to dominant norms of manly conduct by enlisting, and considers individuals' experiences of 'non-enlistment'. It also focuses on middle-class men's involvement in volunteer activities on the home front. The book also focuses on middle-class men's working lives, paying particular attention to those aspects of work that were most affected by the war. It considers civilian men's responses to the new ambivalence towards profit-making, as well as to the doubts cast on the 'value' of much middle-class, whitecollar work in wartime. The book further assesses the ways in which middle-class men negotiated their roles as wartime consumers and explores the impact of war on middle-class relationships. It considers the nature of wartime links between civilians and servicemen, as well as the role of the paterfamilias within the middle-class family, before turning to focus on the relationship between civilian fathers and combatant sons.

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Middle-class men and the First World War
Laura Ugolini

attention not only to continuities, but also to changes in middle-class practices, both those self-imposed as a patriotic duty, and those dictated by wartime shortages and high prices. The chapter then assesses the ways in which middle-class men negotiated their roles as wartime consumers and suggests that consumption provided one of the main arenas where they sought to define themselves as responsible, patriotic citizens, in contrast to ‘others’ condemned as selfish, heedless and unpatriotic. Finally, Chapter 8 concludes the book by exploring the impact of war on middle

in Civvies
Laura Ugolini

such heavy demands on people and material, and led to such widespread disruption to international trade, consumer practices were hardly likely to remain unaffected. • 227 • chap7.indd 227 05/04/2013 11:06:37 Civvies The aim of this chapter is thus to examine middle-class men’s wartime consumer and leisure practices. Recent research has shown that far from being disinterested in consumption, preferring to leave it to their womenfolk, Edwardian middle-class men were keen purchasers and users of the whole range of commodities and leisure opportunities on offer to

in Civvies
British intelligence, ministers and the Soviet Union
Daniel W. B. Lomas

, policymakers in government were far from impressed with the performance of Britain’s intelligence community. Attlee, as his working papers make clear, would have been fully aware of the post-war intelligence deficiency and, as a wartime consumer, he would have been conscious of the immense success enjoyed by Britain’s codebreakers. In wartime, policymakers had been spoilt by the abundance of information on Germany

in Intelligence, security and the Attlee governments, 1945–51